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Comparison of Infant Complication between Emergency and Caesarean Sections: A Meta-Analysis

Rahmi Padlilah, Ika Yulianti

Abstract

Background:  The World Health Organization (WHO) calls for all regions in the world not to have a caesarean section (SC) rate of more than 15%. Globally, since 2003-2018, Emer­­gency Ca­esarean Section (EmCS) and Elec­tive Cae­sarean Section (ElCS) actions have con­tinued to in­crease by 4% each year to 21%. Previous studies report that EmCS increases the risk of com­pli­cations in the fetus compared to ElCS. Based on the problem above, this study aims to analyze and compare complications ex­p­erienced by the fe­tus in the process of Emer­gency Caesarean Section (EmCS) and Elective Caesarean Section (ElCS).

Subjects and Method: This was sys­tem­atic review and meta-analysis study, which was con­ducted from July-August 2019. The data were obtained from Pub­Med, Sci­ence Direct, Web of Science, Springer Link, and Cochrane Data­base. The keywords were "elective cesa­rean sec­tion (ElCS) AND emergency cesarean section (Em­CS)" AND "emer­gency cesarean section (Em­CS) and fetal complication" AND "elective ce­sa­re­an sec­­tion (ECS) and fetal complication" AND "elec­­tive cesarean section (EmCS) AND fetal compli­cation" (ElCS) AND emergency ce­sa­rean section (EmCS) AND fetal complication.

Results: Emergency cesarean section incre­a­ses the likelihood of neonatal death 4 times high­er than the elective cesarean section and is statistically significant (RR= 4.02; 95% CI= 2.41 to 6.72). Emergency cesarean section can in­­crease the likelihood of apgar score dec­rease 2 times higher than elective cesarean sec­tion and statistically significant (RR= 2.07; 95% CI= 1.03 to 4.15). Emergency cesarean section is 1.62 times higher than elective cesa­rean section and statistically significant (OR= 1.62; 95% CI= 1.19 to 2.20).

Conclusion: Emergency cesarean section can increase the likelihood of death, decrease Apgar score <6, and hypoxia in the fetus compared to elective cesarean section.

Keywords: emergency cesarean section, elec­tive cesarean section, meta-analysis

Correspondence: Ika Yulianti. Faculty of Health Science, Univer­sitas Borneo Tarakan, North Kaliman­tan, Indo­nesia. Email: ikatama­evan@g­mail.c­om. Mobile: +628115440036

Journal of Maternal and Child Health (2020), 5(2): 200-205
https://doi.org/10.26911/thejmch.2020.05.02.10

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