User

Path Analysis on the Effect of Birthweight, Maternal Education, Stimulation, Exclusive Breastfeeding, and Nutritional Status on Motoric Development in Children Aged 6-24 Months in Banyumas District, Central Java

Inggar Ratna Kusuma, Harsono Salimo, Endang Sutisna Sulaeman

Abstract

Background: The first two years of a child life is a critical period for his growth and development. Motor skill is one of the elements of children development. Having good control of motor skill helps children in exploring their surrounding also helps in improving development. The study aimed to explain the effect of birth weight, maternal education, provision of stimulation, and nutritional status toward the development of children under two years old.

Subjects and Method: The method of the study was analytic observational, with retrospective cohort approach. The study was conducted in 4 sub-districts of Banyumas Regency included: Kembaran, Somagede, Cilongok and Sumpiuh. Cluster sampling was used as subject selection techniques and were classified based on low birth weight and non low birth weight (fixed exposure sampling). There were a total of 120 children whom 40 of them were born with Low Birth Weight and 80 of them with normal birth weight. Exogenous variables among others were birth weight, exclusive breastfeeding, maternal education, stimulation provision. Endogeneous variables were nutritional status, and motor development. Data collection was conducted by using Early Detection Intervention Stimulation for Growth and Development (SDIDTK). Path analysis was used as the analysis technique.

Result: Motor development was affected by nutritional status (b=0.12; SE= 0.04; p=0.006), frequency of stimulation (b=0.04; SE= 0.01; p=0.005), birth weight (b=0.33; SE=0.06; p<0.001), and maternal education (b=0.02; SE=0.07; p=0.719). Nutritional status was affected by exclusive breastfeeding (b =0.10, SE=0.15; p=0.507), maternal education (b=0.23; SE=0.13; p=0.078) and birth weight (b=0.38; SE=0.12; p=0.002).

Conclusion: Motor development was affected by nutritional status, frequency of stimulation, birth weight, and maternal education. Nutritional status was affected by exclusive breastfeeding, maternal education and birth weight.

Key words: birth weight, exclusive breastfeeding, stimulation, maternal education, nutritional status, motor development.

Correspondence: Inggar Ratna Kusuma. Fakultas Health Science of Muhammadiyah University Purwokerto Email : inggarratna@gmail.com. Mobile: 08562553967.

Journal of Maternal and Child Health (2017), 2(1): 64-75
https://doi.org/10.26911/thejmch.2017.02.01.07

Full Text:

PDF

References

Alhusen JL, Hayat MJ, Gross D (2013). A Longitudinal Study Of Maternal Attachment And Infant Developmental Outcomes. Arch Womens Ment Health, 16(6).

Ali SS, Dhaded, Goudar S (2014). The Impact of Nutrition on Child Development at 3 Years in a Rural Community of India. International Journal of Preventif Medicine. Int J Prev Med, 5(4): 494–499.

Ati CA, Alfiyanti D, Solekhan A (2013). Hubungan Antara Status Gizi Dengan Perkembangan Motorik Kasar Anak Balita Di RSUD Tugurejo Semarang Tahun 2013. http://download.portalgaruda.org.

Bedford R, Urabain IRS, Cheung CHM, Smitt AK, Smitt TJ (2016). Toddlers’ Fine Motor Milestone Achievement Is Associated with Early Touchscreen Scrolling. Frontiers in Psychology. 7(1108). doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.011-08. 7.

Burns CE, Dunn AM, Brady MA, Starr NB, Blosser CG. 2013. Pediatric Primary Care. Fifth Edition. Elsevier. Pediatric and Primary Health Care: United States of America.

Callahan T, Stampfel C, Cornell A, Diop H, Josiah DB, Kane D, Mccracken S, McKane P, Phillips G, Theall K, Pies C, Sappenï¬eld W (2015). From Theory to Measurement: Recommended State MCH Life Course Indicators. Matern Child Health J, 19: 2336–2347.

Colditz P, Sanders MR, Boyd R, Pritchard M, Gray PO, Callaghan MJ, Slaughter V, Whittingham K (2015). Prem Baby Triple P: a Randomised Controlled Trial Of Enhanced Parenting Capacity To Improve Developmental Outcomes In Preterm Infants. BioMed Central Pediatrics, 15:15.

Devi M (2010). Analisis Faktor-Faktor Yang Berpengaruh Terhadap Status Gizi Balita Di Pedesaan. Jurnal Teknologi dan Kejuruan, 33(2): 183-192.

Dhuara IK (2015). Determinan Kematian Bayi Berat Lahir Rendah Selama Rawat Inap di RSUD Karangasem tahun 2012-2014. Tesis. http://www.pps.unud.ac.id. 17 November 2016

Dilworth-Bart JE, Poehlmann JA, Miller KE, Hilgendorf AE (2011). Do Mothers’ Play Behaviors Moderate the Associations between Socioeconomic Status and 24 Month Neurocognitive Outcomes of Toddlers Born Preterm or with Low Birth Weight? Journal of Pediatric Psychology 36(3): 289–300.

Eickmann SH, Malkesll NFA, Limall MC (2012). Psychomotor Development Of Preterm Infants Aged 6 To 12 Months. Sao Paulo Med J, 130(5):299-306.

Fisher JO, Birch LL, Wright HS (2008). Breast-Feeding Through The First Year Predicts Maternal Control In Feeding And Subsequent Toddler Energy Intakes. J Am Diet Assoc, 100(6): 641–646.

Garey H, Nouris MD, Nancy A, Murfi MD (2013). Motor Delays: Early Identification and Evaluation. Pediatrics, 131(6).

Giagazoglou P, Kyparos A, Fotiadou E, Angelo¬poulou N (2007). The Effect of Residence Area and Mather’s Education and Motor Development of Preschool Aged Children in Greece. Taylor & Francis.

Giri MKW, Muliarta IW, Wahyuni MPDS (2013). Hubungan Pemberian Asi Eksklusif Dengan Status Gizi Balita Usia 6-24 Bulan Di Kampung Kajanan, Buleleng. Jurnal Sains dan Teknologi, 2(1).

Grace K, Muhoozi M, Atukunda P, Mwadime R, Iversen PO and Westerberg AC (2016). Nutritional and developmental status among 6 to 8 monthold children in southwestern Uganda: a cross-sectional study. Food & Nutrition Research, 60: 30270.

Habaasa G (2015). An Investigation On Factors Associated With Malnutrition Among Underfive Children In Nakaseke And Nakasongola Districts, Uganda. BMC Pediatrics, 15:134 DOI 10.1186/s128870150448y.

Hastuti D (2009). Stimulasi Psiko-sosial Pada Anak Kelompok Bermain Dan Pengaruhnya Pada Perkembangan Motorik, Kognitif, Sosial Emosi, Dan Moral/karakter Anak. Jurnal Ilmu Keluarga dan Konsumen, 1(2): 41-56.

Huang JH, Huang HL, Chen HL, Lin LC, Tseng HI, Kao TJ (2012). Inattenttion and Development of Toddler Born in Preterm and With Low Birth Weight. Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences.

Joshi HS, Srivastava PC, Agnihotri AK, Joshi MC, Shalini C, Vipul M (2010). Risk Factors for Low Birth Weight (LBW) Babies and its MedicoLegal Significance. J Indian Acad Forensic Med, 32(3).

Kliegman RM, Marcdante KJ, Jenson HB, Behrman RE (2006). Essentials of Pediatrics Fifth Edition. China: Elsevier Saunders

Kuh D, Shlomo DY, Lynch J, Hallqvist J, Power C (2003). Life course epidemiology. J Epidemiol Community Health, 57:778–783

Latorre RPA, Lopez LDM, Pinillos LG (2016). Feeding Practices, Physical Activity, And Fitness In Spanish Preschoolers: Influence Of Sociodemo-graphic Outcome Measures. Arch Argent Pediatr, 114(5):441-447.

Lindawati (2013). Faktor-Faktor yang Berhubungan Dengan Perkembangan Motorik Anak Usia Pra Sekolah. Jurnal Health Quality, 4(1): 1 – 76.

Maggi EF, Magalhaese LC, Campos AF, Bouzada MCF (2014). Preterm Children Have Unfavorable Motor, Cognitive, And Functional Performance When Compared To Term Children Of Preschool Age. J Pediatr (Rio J), 90(4):377-383

Murti B (2013). Desain Dan Ukuran Sampel Untuk Penelitian Kuantitatif Dan Kualitatif Di Bidang Kesehatan. Yogyakarta: Gajah Mada University Press.

_____ (2016). Prinsip Dan Metode Riset Epidemiologi. Program Studi Ilmu Kesehatan Masyarakat, Program Pascasarjana, Universitas Sebelas Maret Surakarta. Surakarta: Yuma Pustaka.

Nazi S, Aliabadi F (2015). Comparison Of Motor Development Of Low Birth Weight (LBW) Infants With And Without Using Mechanical Ventilation And Normal Birth Weight Infants. Med J Islam Repub Iran, 29:301.

Negrato CA, Gomes MB (2013). Low Birth Weight: Causes And Consequences. Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome, 5:49.

Park H, Bothe D, Holsinger E, Kirchner HL, Olness K and Mandalakas A (2011). The Impact of Nutritional Status and Longitudinal Recovery of Motor and Cognitive Milestones in Internationally Adopted Children. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 8:105-116.

Hockenberry PSE, Lowdermilk MJ, Wilson DL (2010). Maternal Child Nursing Care Fourth Edition.Canada : Elsevier

Proverawati A, Ismawati C (2010). Berat Badan Lahir Rendah. Yogyakarta: Nuha Medika

Pulakka A (2015). Measurement, Effect Of Nutrient Supplements And Parental Perceptions. Dessertation. University of Tamperee.

Quansah E, Ohene LA, Norman NL, Mireku MO, Thomas K, Karikari TK (2016). Social Factors Influencing Child Health in Ghana. PLOS ONE, 11(1): e0145401.

Risma (2009). Hubungan Antara Status Pekerjaan Ibu dengan Status Gizi dan Perkembangan Anak Usia 1-3 tahun di Kecamatan Kadia Kota Kendari. Tesis. Program pasca Sarjana Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Gadjah Mada.

Ruike L, Jui S, Yan HL, Fang L (2015). Correlation Between Growth Rate Of Corpus Callosum And Neuromotor Development In Preterm Infants. Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatric, 17(8): 841-346.

Sinigaglia OE, Ríos OM, Campos M, Díaz B, Palacios C (2016). Breastfeeding Practices, Timing Of Introduction Of Complementary Beverages And Foods And Weight Status In Infants And Toddlers Participants Of A WIC Clinic In Puerto Rico. Springer Plus, 5:1437.

UNICEF (2012). Ringkasan Kajian Kesehatan Ibu dan Anak. http://www.unicef.org. diakses 8 Januari 2016

WHO (2010). Nutrition Landscape Information System (NLIS) Country Profile Indicators Interpretation Guide. http://www.who.int.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.