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The Associations between Anemia, Stunting, Low Birthweight, and Cognitive Ability in Indonesian Children: An Analysis from Indonesian Family Life Survey

Safitri Tia Tampy

Abstract

Background:  Stunting, anemia, and Low Birth Wei­ght (LBW) are the most common child health pro­blem in Indonesia. These three factors can af­fect the nutritional status of children both in the short and long term. These disorders will af­fect child­ren growth and development. One of the long-term developmental disorders in children that occur due to stunting, anemia, and LBW is cog­­nitive impairment.

Subjects and Method: This was a cross-sec­tio­nal study. This study was conducted by analyzing the secondary data of the 3rd, 4th, and 5th Indo­ne­sian Family Life Survey (IFLS). The study was con­ducted from June to July 2020. The study sub­jects were 3563 children aged 7-14 years. The sample was collected using a total random samp­ling technique after clearing the data. The depen­dent variable was cognitive ability. The inde­pen­dent variables were anemia, stunting, and Low Birth Weight (LBW). The data were analyzed using the Chi-square method and logistic reg­res­sion.

Results: The prevalence of stunting was 35.92%, ane­mia was 36.21%, children with a history of LBW were 7.69%, and children who had cognitive abi­lities below the average were 37.22%. Children who did not experience stunting improved their cog­nitive abilities (OR=1.32; 95%CI=0.88 to 1.18; p<0.001).

Conclusion: Children who do not experience stunting improve their cognitive abilities.

Keywords: Anemia, stunting, Low Birth Weight, cognitive

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