Path Analysis on the Biological and Social Economic Determinants of Neonatal Death in Bantul District, Yogyakarta

Funik Rahma Mei Listiani, Harsono Salimo, Bhisma Murti


Background: Nearly four million or two-thirds of the newborns (first week of life) die each year worldwide. In Indo­nesia, neonatal mortality contri­butes to 59% infant mortality. Factors associated with infant death have been reported to be biological and social economic. This study aimed to examine the biological and social-economic determinants of neonatal death in Bantul District, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

Subjects and Method: This was an analytic observational study with a case-control design. Population in this study was all neonates in Panembahan Senopati Hospital who were born from January 2017 to January 2018. A total sample of 200 neonates was selected for this study by fixed disease sampling, consisting of 50 dead and 150 alive neonates. The dependent variable was neonatal death. The independent variables were low birth-weight, asphyxia, prematurity, pregnancy infection, maternal age, maternal education, maternal employment status, and family income. The data were collected by questionnaire and analyzed by path analysis.

Results: Risk of neonatal death directly increased with asphyxia (b=3.65; 95% CI= 1.77 to 5.52; p<0.001), prematurity (b=2.78; 95% CI= 1.64 to 3.92; p<0.001), and pregnancy infection (b=3.04; 95% CI= 1.82 to 4.26; p<0.001). Risk of neonatal death was indirectly associated with maternal aged 20-35 years, family income, maternal education, and maternal work outside the house.

Conclusion: The risk of neonatal death directly increases with asphyxia, prematurity, low birth weight, infection. Risk of neonatal death is indirectly associated with maternal aged 20-35 years, family income, maternal education, and maternal work outside the house.

Keywords: neonatal death, risk factors, biological factor, the social and economic factor


Funik Rahma Mei Listiani, Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta, Central Java 57126. Email: 

Journal of Maternal and Child Health (2018), 3(2): 91-99

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