The Biopsychosocial Determinants of Stunting and Wasting in Children Aged 12-48 Months

Ria Muji Rahayu, Eti Poncorini Pamungkasari, CSP Wekadigunawan


Background: Stunting and wasting are a growth disorder in children under five years of age caused by malnutrition. Stunting is generally caused by recurrent acute malnutrition, whereas wasting occurs due to short-term malnutrition. If untreated properly, stunting and wasting may cause low intelligence in adult life. This study aimed to analyze the biopsychosocial determinants of stunting and wasting in children aged 12-48 months.

Subjects and Method: This was an analytic observational study with a case-control design. The study was conducted at Mulya Asri, Panaragan, and Da­ya­mur­ni community health centers, from January to February 2018. A sample of 150 children under-five was selected for this study by fixed disease sampling. The dependent variables were stunting and wasting. The independent variables were birthweight, maternal knowledge, maternal education, maternal nutritional status (mid-upper arm circumference/ MUAC), exclusive breastfeeding, upper respiratory tract infection, diarrhea, lack of clean water, poor sanitation. The data were collected by questionnaire and maternal and child health monitoring book. The data were analyzed by a logistic regression.

Results: The risk of stunting increased with poor maternal knowledge (OR= 5.29; 95% CI= 1.30 to 21.54; p=0.002), low maternal education (OR=10.25; 95%CI= 2.26 to 46.79; p=0.003), poor maternal nutritional status (OR= 8.87; 95% CI= 2.14 to 36.74; p=0.003), low birthweight rendah (OR= 9.86; 95% CI= 2.60 to 37.47; p=0.001), infants receiveing no exclusive breastfeeding (OR= 5.70; 95% CI= 1.59 to 20.46; p=0.008). The risk of wasting increased with poor knowledge (OR= 10.95; 95% CI= 2.14 to 56.91; p= 0.004), low family income (OR= 7.04; 95% CI= 5.51 to 32.78; p=0.013), low birthweight (OR= 14.71; 95% CI= 2.74 to 79.06; p=0.002), URTI history (OR= 4.87; 95% CI= 1.23 to 19.38; p=0.024), diarrhea (OR= 6.09; 95% CI= 1.42 to 26.20; p=0.015), a lack of clean water (OR= 9.78; 95% CI= 2.26 to 42.36; p=0.002), and poor sanitation (OR= 7.67; 95% CI= 1.85 to 31.75; p=0.004).

Conclusion: Stunting and wasting are affected by birthweight, URTI history, diarrhea, maternal nutritional status, maternal knowledge, maternal education, family income, lack of clean water, and poor sanitation.

Keywords: stunting, wasting, biopsychosocial, determinants

Correspondence: Ria Muji R, Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java. Email: Mobile: +6285878731600

Journal of Maternal and Child Health (2018), 3(2): 105-118

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