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The Effect of Gadget Use on Child Development: A Path Analysis Evidence from Melawi, West Kalimantan

Livia Calorina, Pawito Pawito, Hanung Prasetya

Abstract

Background: The use of gadgets in early childhood can affect the mental and physical deve­lop­ment of children. The Indonesian Pediatric Association (IDAI) estimates that 5-10% of children ex­perience developmental delays. Children's development is influenced by environmental factors, pa­rents, nutritional status, and the use of gadgets. This study aimed to analyze the effect of gadget use on child development in Melawi, West Kalimantan, using path analysis model.

Subject and Method: This was a cross sectional study conducted in Melawi, West Kalimantan, Indonesia, from August to September 2019. A total 200 children aged 3 to 5 years old was selected by fixed ex­posure sampling. The dependent variable was child development. The independent variables were gadget usage, maternal age, maternal education, maternal em­ploy­ment, family income, number of children, and family type. The data were collected by ques­tion­naire. The data were analyzed by path analysis run on Stata 13.

Result: Child development was directly and positively affected by maternal aged ≥20 years old (b= 1.52; 95% CI= -0.29 to 3.35; p= 0.101), high maternal education (b=2.53; 95% CI=1.23 to 3.84; p<0.001), family income ≥Rp 2,288,000 (b= 1.38; 95% CI= 0.01 to 2.77; p= 0.049), and core family type (b= 1.61; 95% CI= 0.43 to 2.80; p= 0.008). Child development was directly and nega­tively affected by gadget use (b= -2.74; 95% CI= -3.99 to -1.49; p<0.001), mother working outside the house (b= -1.98; 95% CI= -3.06 to -0.90; p<0.001), and number of children >2 (b= -2.48; 95% CI= -3.67 to -1.29; p<0.001). Child development was indirectly affected by maternal education and maternal employment.

Conclusion: Child development is directly and positively affected by maternal aged ≥20 years old, high maternal education, high family income, and core family type. Child development is directly and nega­tively affected by gadget use, mother working outside the house, and number of children >2. Child development is indirectly affected by maternal education and maternal employment.

Keywords: gadget use, child development, path analysis

Correspondence: Livia Calorina. Postgraduate of Public Health Sciences, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta, Central Java 57126. Email: liviacalorina41@gmail.com. Mobile: 081346595497

Journal of Maternal and Child Health (2020), 5(1): 111-120
https://doi.org/10.26911/thejmch.2020.05.01.12

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