Factors Affecting Early Detection and Stimulation by Mothers and their Impact on Receptive Language Skills of Children Age 4 to 6 Years

Anggi Resina Putri, Eti Poncorini Pamungkasari, Hanung Prasetya


Background:  Language is a communication tool used by humans since birth. Receptive langu­age can be interpreted as the ability to com­mu­nic­ate symbolically both visual and auditory. Through early detection measures, parents can find out the problem of child growth and deve­lop­­ment early, so that prevention, stimu­lation, heal­ing, and recovery efforts can be given with clear in­di­ca­tions at critical times of the child's growth and development process. Stimulation of child growth and development is carried out by mothers and fathers who are the closest people to children, other family mem­bers, and community groups in their respective households and in everyday life. This study aims to analyze the relationship bet­ween early detection and early stimulation with the receptive language skills of preschool children using the Health Belief Model (HBM) theory.

Subjects and Method: This research was con­duc­ted using a cross-sectional research design in Surakarta, from December 2019 - January 2020. A sample of 200 children was selected using a fix­ed disease sampling tech­ni­que. The dependent va­riable is receptive langua­ge ability. The inde­pen­dent variables are per­ception of vulnerability, perception of serious­­­ness, cues to action, and self-efficacy. The intermediate variables are early detection and early stimulation. Data collection using questionnaires and Receptive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test(ROWPVT), data were analyzed using path analysis with Stata 13.

Results: Receptive language skills are improved with mothers who do early detection (b= 0.83 units; 95% CI= 0.19 to 1.47; p= 0.011) and early stimulation (b= 0.87 units; 95% CI= 0.28 to 1.47; p= 0.004).

Conclusion: Children's receptive language skills increase with mothers who do early detec­tion and early stimulation. Children's receptive language skills are indirectly affected by per­cep­tion of vulnerability, perception of serious­­ness, cues to action, and self-efficacy through early detection or early stimulation by the mother.

Correspondence: Anggi ResinaPutri. Masters Program in Public Health. Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Su­tami 36A, Surakarta, Central Java, Indo­nesia, 57126. Email: anggiresina­putri­@­gma­ Mo­­bile: 085727387689

Journal of Maternal and Child Health (2020), 5(3): 235-242




Full Text:



Adefolalu AO (2018). Cognitive-behavioural theories and adherence: Application and relevance in antiretroviral therapy. Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine. 19(1): 762.

Burnside K, Wright K, Poulin-Dubois D (2017). Social motivation and implicit theory of mind in children with autism spectrum disorder. International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. 10: 1834–1844.

Guralnick MJ (2017). Early intervention for children with intellectual disabilities: An update. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities. 30: 211–229.

Hawa VV, Spanoudis G (2014). Toddlers with delayed expressive language: an overview of the characteristics, risk factors, and language outcomes. Research in Developmental Disabilities 35: 400-407.

Herman KC, Conen D, Owens S, Latimore T, Reinke WM, Burrell L, McFarlane E, Duggan A (2016). Language delays and child depressive symptoms: The role of early stimulation in the home. Society for Prevention Research.

Inglebret E, Bailey S, Clothiaux JA, Skinder-Meredith A, Monoson K, Cleveland L (2017). Reporting of sosio economis status in pediatric language research. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology. 15; 26 (3): 1042-1052.

Linde JVD, Swanepoel DW, Hanekom L, Lemmer T, Schoeman K, Glascoe FP, Vinck B (2016). Early detection of communication delays with the PEDS tools in at risk South African infants. African Journal of Disability. 5(1): a223.

Longo AI, Tupinelli GG, Hermogenes C, Ferreira LV, Avejonas DRM (2017). Prevalence of speech and language disorders in children in the western region of Sao Paulo Brazil. 29(6): e20160036.

Murti B (2018). Planning health promotion program. Program Studi Ilmu Kesehatan Masyarakat. Surakarta: Sebelas Maret University.

Nippold MA (2018). Language development in children who stutter: A review of recent research. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology.21 (4): 368-376.

Owens JR, Robert E (2014). Language disorders: A fuctional approach to assessment and intervention. Sixth Edition. USA: Pearson Education.

Picha KJ, Jochimsen KN, Heebner NR, Abt JP, Usher EL, Capilouto G, Uhl TL (2018). Measurements of self‐efficacy in musculoskeletal rehabilitation: A systematic review. Musculoskeletal Care. 16: 471-488.

Rendal AR, Perrino PA, LoTurco JJ, Fitch RH (2017). Evaluation of visual motion perception ability in mice with knockout of the dyslexia candidate susceptibility gene Dcdc2. International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society. 18:e12450.

Roberts MY, Curtis PR, Sone BJ, Hampton LH. Association of Parent Training With Child Language Development: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA Pediatr 2019; 173(7):671–680.

Saputri W (2015). Peningkatan kemampuan berbicara melalui media gambar pada anak kelompok A di TK Bener Yogyakarta. Retrieved from, KG McAfee JG. 2015. Assessment in Speech-Language Pathology. Fifth Edition. Delmar: Cengage Learning.

Tarkang EE, Zotor FB (2015). Application of the health belief model (HBM) in HIV prevention: A literature review. 1 (1): 1–8.


  • There are currently no refbacks.