User

Maternal characteristics as predictors of immunization status of under-five in Ebonyi State of Nigeria. A community based cross-sectional study

Eunice N. Afoke, Lois N. Omaka-Amari, Jude N. Nwafor, Raphael E. Ochiaka, Christian O. Aleke, Michael O. Okereke, Edu Theresa Sylvester, Bassey Rita Edet, Ilo Cajetan Ikechukwu

Abstract

Background: : Childhood immunization with the interacting factors has been a significant public health challenge especially in the sub-Saharan Africa. Nigeria has been presented as one the countries with the worst under-five mortality rates, and factors affecting childhood immunization are poorly understood. This study determined the influence of maternal characteristics as a predictor of immunization status of under-five in Ebonyi State of Nigeria.

Subjects and Method: The design in this study is cross-sectional survey. The population of the study was 572,955 under-five children in Ebonyi State from which 2865 was sampled. Data were analyzed using percentages and chi-square.

Results: The results revealed that 83.01% of under-5 children were fully immunized, suggesting a high immunization status in Ebonyi State. The chi-square analysis shows a significant influence of mothers’ age (p < 0.05), mothers’ location of residence (p < 0.05), mothers’ educational level (p < 0.05) and immunization status of under-five children.

Conclusion: It was concluded that immunization status of under-five children in Ebonyi State was high and maternal characteristics had significant influence on immunization status of under-five children. Thus, it was reco­mmended among others, that government at all levels should provide tangible incentives to mothers who fully immunized their children and promulgate a law to prevent children without immunization cards, also compel mothers, teachers to show full immunization of under-five children by registering in public and private primary schools. 

Keywords: maternal characteristics, immunization status, under-five children

Correspondence: Christian Okechukwu Aleke, Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria. Tel: 234-703-085-6506. E-mail: Christian.aleke2020@gmail.com. christian.aleke@yahoo.com.

Journal of Maternal and Child Health (2022), 07(03): 294-306
https://doi.org/10.26911/thejmch.2022.07.03.06

 

Full Text:

PDF

References

Aboubakary S, Seraphin S, Kouyaté B, Marylène D, Janice G, Gilles B (2009). Assessment of factors associated with complete immunization coverage in children aged 12-23 months: a cross-sectional study in Nouna district, Burkina Faso. BMC Int. Health Hum. Rights. 9(1).


Adebayo BE, Oladokun RE, Akinbami FO (2012). Immunization coverage in a rural community in outhwestern Nigeria. World J. Vaccines. 3, 143. doi:10.4172/2157-7560.1000143


Adenike OB, Adejumoke J, Olufunmi O, Ridwan O (2017). Maternal characteristics and immunization status of children in North Central of Nigeria. Pan Afr Med J. 26, 159. doi: 10.11604/pamj.2017.26.159.11530.


Banerjee S, SubirBiswas, Roy S, Pal M, Hossain MG, Bharati P (2021). Nutritional and immunization status of under-five children of India and Bangladesh. BMC Nutrition 7: 77. doi: 10.1186/s40795-021-00484-6.


Chakraborty A, Dasgupta U, Mondal K, Das I, Sengupta D, Mundle M (2014). Poor maternal education and incomplete immunization status are key predictors in development of under nutrition a descriptive study among under five children attending a tertiary care Hospital in Kolkata, West Bengal. Indian J Prev Soc Med. 45(1-2): 6. Retrieved from http://ijpsm.co.in/index.php/ijpsm/article/view/157.


Duclos P, Okwo-Bele JM, Gacic-Dobo M, Cherian T (2009). Global immunization: status, progress, challenges and future. BMC Int Health Hum Rights 9, S2. doi: org/10.1186/1472-698X-9-S1-S2.


Oyefara JL (2014). Mothers’ characteristics and immunization status of under-five children in ojo local government area, Lagos State, Nigeria. SAGE Open. 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244014545474.


Department of Health and Human Services (2009). Epidemiology and prevention of vaccine-preventable diseases, 11th ed. Washington DC, 1-7.


Ebonyi State Ministry of Information (20-10). History of Ebonyi State. Abakaliki: Ministry of Information.


Elizabeth TL, Mary MM, Abigail S, Susan YC (2003). Maternal characteristics associated with vaccination of young children. Paediatrics. 111(5): 1215-1218.


Etana B, Deressa W (2011). Factors affecting immunization status of children aged 12-23 months in ambo woreda, west shewa zone of Oromia Regional State: Addis Ababa University College of Health Science.


Etana B, Deressa W (2012). Factors associated with complete immunization coverage in children aged 12-23 months in Ambo Woreda, Central Ethiopia. BMC Public Health, 12, 566. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-566.


Fernandez RC, Awofeso N, Rammohan A (2011). Determinants of apparent rural-urban differentials in measles vaccination uptake in Indonesia, Rural and Remote Health, 11: 1702.


Global Immunization and Global Immunization Vision and Strategy [GIVS], (2006). Challenges in global immnization and the global immunization vision and strategy 2006-2015. Weekly Epidemiol Rec. 2006, 81: 190-195. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/wer/2006/wer8119.


He Y, Zarychta A, Ranz JB, Carrol M, Singleton LM, Wilson PM, Schlaudecker E (2012). Childhood immunization rates in rural intibca, Honduras: an analysis of a local database tool and community health centre re-cords for assessing and improving vaccine coverage. BMC public health, 12, 1056. Retrieved from: http://www.biomedcentral.com/14712458/12/1056


Ibnouf AH, Van D, Borne HW, Maarse JAM (2007). Factors influencing immunization coverage among children under-five years of age in Khartoum State, Sudan. S. Afri. Fam. Pract. 49(8):102-111.


Immunization Coverage Fact Sheet (2016). Nigeria: WHO and UNICEF estimates of immunization coverage. Retrieved from www.who.immunizatio/da


Kamau N, Esamai FO (2001). Determinants of immunisation coverage among children in Mathare Valley, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 78(11): 590-594. https://doi.org/10.4314/eamj.v78i11.8949.


Kidane T, Yigzaw A, Sahilemariam Y, Bulto T, Mengistu H, Belay T (2008). National Epi coverage survey report. Ethiop J Health Dev. 22(2): 148-157. Retrieved from https://www.ejhd.org/index.php/ejhd/article/view/491.


Lee S (2005). Demand for immunization, parental selection, and child survival. Evidence from rural India. Rev Econ Househ. 3(2):171-197. DOI: 10.1007/s11150-005-0709-x.


Luman ET, McCauley MM, Shefer A, Chu SY (2003). Maternal characteristics associated with vaccination of young children. Pediatrics.111(5 Pt 2):1215-8.


Mokogwu N, Adeyele OA (2014). Full immunization status of under-five children in an urban community in South-south Nigeria. African Journal Online (AJOL) Nigerian Medical Practitioner, 65, 3-4.


Mosiur R, Sarker ON (2010). Factors affectting acceptance of complete immunization coverage of children under five years in rural Bangladesh. Salud Publica Mex. 52(2): 134-40.


Mukungwa T (2015). Factors associated wi-th full immunization coverage amongst children aged 12–23 months in Zimbabwe. Afr. pop. stud. 29, 2. Retrieved from: http://aps.journals.ac.za.


Munthali AC (2007). Determinations of vaccination coverage in Malawi: evidence from the demographic and health surveys. Malawi Med. J. 19: 79-82. doi: 10.4314/mmj.v19i2.10934.


Mutua MK, Kimani-Murage E, Ettarh RR (2011). Childhood vaccination in informal urban settlements in Nairobi, Kenya: Who gets vaccinated? BMC Public Health. 11, 6. doi:10.1186/147-1-2458-11-6.


National Population Commission Nigeria (2016). State population projected Nigeria. Demographic and Health Survey. Abuja, Nigeria.


Nwana OC (2008). Introduction to educational research for students-teachers, (Revised edition). Ibadan: HEBN Publishers Plc.


Odusanya OO, Alufohai EF, Meurice FP (2008). Determinants of vaccination coverage in rural Nigeria. BMC Public Health, 8: 381. doi:10.1186/1471-245-8-8-381.


Olumuyiwa O, Ewan A, Francois P, Vincent I (2008). Determination of vaccination coverage in Nigeria. British Medical Council Public Health, 8, 381-388. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-8-381.


Osomu E, moore D, Abuya BA, Okech, IN, Collins M (2015). Maternal education and immunization status among children in Kenya. Matern. Child Health J. doi:10.1007/S/10995-015-1686-1.


Osuala UK (2015). Predictors of full child-hood immunization status in Owerri, Nigeria. Walden University Dissertation and Doctoral Studies. Retrieved from: http://scholarworks.waldenu.edu/dissertations.


Oyefara JL (2011). Socio-cultural context of adolescent fertility in Yoruba society: Insight from Osun State, Nigeria. La-gos: Concept Publications.


Oyefara JL (2014). Mothers’ characteristics and Immunization status of under-five children in Ojo local government area, Lagos Nigeria. strategic group of experts. SAGE Open. 4, doi: 10117/21-58244014545474.


Sarab K, Abedalrahman ARS, Ruqiya S, Tawfeek R (2008). Factors predicting immunization coverage in Tikrit city middle East. J Fam Med. 6(1): 8-10.


Tagbo BN, Eke CB, Omotowo BI, Onwu-asigwe, CN, Onyeka EB, Mildred UO (2014). Vaccination Coverage and Its Determinants in Children Aged 11 - 23 Months in an Urban District of Nigeria. World J Vaccines. 4: 175-183. doi:org/10.4236/wjv.2014.44020


UNICEF. (2009). State of the world's vacci-nes and immunization, 3rd ed. Ge-neva, WHO. Retrieved from http://-www.unicef.org/media/files/SOWVI_full_report_english_LR1.


UNICEF (2013). Improving child nutrition. In: The achievable imperative for global progress. New York: UNICEF.


United NC Fund (2002). The State of the World's Children. New York.


World Bank (1993). Investing in health. World Development Report. New York: Oxford University Press.


World Bank (2015). Immunization coverage DPT3 coverage by wealth quartile. Washington, DC: Wealth Sector Performance. 15-28.


World Health Organization (2002). Childhood nutrition and progress in implementing the international code of marketing of breast-milk substitute. Geneva: WHO.


ZimStat (2007). Zimbabwe demographic health survey (DHS) 2005-06, Harare Zimbabwe. USA: ICF International, Inc.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.