Maternal characteristics as predictors of immunization status of under-five in Ebonyi State of Nigeria. A community based cross-sectional study

Eunice N. Afoke, Lois N. Omaka-Amari, Jude N. Nwafor, Raphael E. Ochiaka, Christian O. Aleke, Michael O. Okereke, Edu Theresa Sylvester, Bassey Rita Edet, Ilo Cajetan Ikechukwu


Background: : Childhood immunization with the interacting factors has been a significant public health challenge especially in the sub-Saharan Africa. Nigeria has been presented as one the countries with the worst under-five mortality rates, and factors affecting childhood immunization are poorly understood. This study determined the influence of maternal characteristics as a predictor of immunization status of under-five in Ebonyi State of Nigeria.

Subjects and Method: The design in this study is cross-sectional survey. The population of the study was 572,955 under-five children in Ebonyi State from which 2865 was sampled. Data were analyzed using percentages and chi-square.

Results: The results revealed that 83.01% of under-5 children were fully immunized, suggesting a high immunization status in Ebonyi State. The chi-square analysis shows a significant influence of mothers’ age (p < 0.05), mothers’ location of residence (p < 0.05), mothers’ educational level (p < 0.05) and immunization status of under-five children.

Conclusion: It was concluded that immunization status of under-five children in Ebonyi State was high and maternal characteristics had significant influence on immunization status of under-five children. Thus, it was reco­mmended among others, that government at all levels should provide tangible incentives to mothers who fully immunized their children and promulgate a law to prevent children without immunization cards, also compel mothers, teachers to show full immunization of under-five children by registering in public and private primary schools. 

Keywords: maternal characteristics, immunization status, under-five children

Correspondence: Christian Okechukwu Aleke, Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria. Tel: 234-703-085-6506. E-mail:

Journal of Maternal and Child Health (2022), 07(03): 294-306


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