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Oral and Injection Hormonal Contraceptives Uptake and Their Risk to Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

Dian Asih Ning Utami, Bhisma Murti, Uki Retno Budihastuti

Abstract

Background: Breast cancer cases are the biggest contributor to death in women in the world. One of the risk factors is injectable hormonal contraceptives and pills. Injectable hormonal contraceptives and pills contain synthetic hormones progesterone and estrogen that trigger breast cancer, due to an increase in the content of these hormones in the body, this results in an opportunity to experience uncontrolled cell division resulting in gene mutations in the breast gland. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of the use of injectable and pill hormonal contraceptives on the incidence of breast cancer using a meta-analysis study.

Subjects and Method: This research is a systematic review and meta-analysis using PRISMA flowchart diagram guidelines. The article search process was carried out between 2015-2022 using databases including Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct and Springerlink. The keywords used in the database search were “contraceptive acceptor women” AND “hormonal contraception” OR “injectable contraceptive” OR “DMPA” OR “oral contraceptive” OR “pills contraceptive” AND “breast cancer” AND “case control”. The inclusion criteria were full text articles with a case control study design, articles in English, multivariate analysis using adjusted odds ratio. Eligible articles were analyzed using the Revman 5.3 application.

Results: A total of 16 case-control articles from Palestine, Saudi Arabia, China, Malaysia, Vietnam, Bangladesh, Finland, Iran, UK, Kenya, Jordan, Algaria, Cameroon and Bangui were carried out in this meta-analysis. Meta-analysis of 7 articles showed that the use of injectable hormonal contraceptives increased the risk of breast cancer 1.52 and was statistically significant (aOR = 1.52; CI 95%= 1.11 to 2.07; p = 0.009). Meanwhile, 9 articles showed that the use of hormonal contraceptive pills increased the risk of breast cancer 1.96 and was statistically significant (aOR= 1.96; CI 95%= 1.19 to 3.23; p= 0.008).

Conclusion: Injectable hormonal contraceptives and pills increase the risk of breast cancer.

Keywords: injectable hormonal contraception, pill hormonal contraception, breast cancer.

Correspondence: Dian Asih Ning Utami. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret. Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta 57126, Jawa Tengah. Email: dianasih1998@gmail.com. Mobile: +6281216822211.

Journal of Maternal and Child Health (2022), 07(03): 346-358
https://doi.org/10.26911/thejmch.2022.07.03.11

 

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