User

Factors Associated with the Risk of Autism in Children Under Five Years of Age: A Path Analysis Evidence from Banten

Fitriyani Dwi Astuti, Harsono Salimo, Eti Poncorini Pamungkasari

Abstract

Background: Autism, now increasingly referred to as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a set of clinical phenotypes mirroring an early-onset neurodevelopmental disorder affecting social communication, imagination, and behavior. Children with ASD develop differently from other children. They also have challenges in interacting and communicating with others. These challenges can affect their development and learning. This study aimed to determine factors associated with the risk of autism in children under five.

Subjects and Method: This was a case control study carried out at two special schools for children with development problem in Tangerang, Banten, from February to March 2018. A sample of 200 children aged 1-5 years was selected by fixed disease sampling, consisting of 50 children with autism and 150 normal children. The dependent variable was autism. The independent variables were family income, maternal education, maternal age, gestational stress, chemical exposure, nutritional intake, fever at pregnancy, growth and development impairment, and mumps-measles-rubella (MMR) vaccine. Data on immunization status, growth and development were taken from medical record. Data on the other variables were collected by questionnaire.The data were analyzed by path analysis.

Results: The risk of autism increased with chemical exposure (b= 2.86; 95%CI= 0.77 to 4.96; p= 0.007), gestational stress (b= 2.45; 95% CI= 0.60 to 4.30; p= 0.010), growth and development impairment (b= 1.69; 95% CI= -0.24 to 3.61; p= 0.086), and maternal age ?35 years (b= 2.82; 95% CI= 0.73 to 4.92; p= 0.008). Autism decreased with good nutritional intake (b= -2.08; 95%CI= -3.88 to -0.28; p= 0.023). The risk of autism was indirectly affected by fever at pregnancy, chemical exposure, family income, and maternal education. MMR vaccine did not affect the incidence of autism (b= 1.12; 95% CI= -2.11 to 4.36; p= 0.500).

Conclusion: The risk of autism increases with chemical exposure, gestational stress, growth and development impairment, maternal age ?35 years, and decreases with good nutritional intake. MMR vaccine does not affect the incidence of autism in children.

Keywords: autism, chemical exposure, growth and development impairment, MMR vaccine, children under five

Correspondence:Fitriyani Dwi Astuti. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java. Email: fitriyani.dwi.astuti@gmail.com. Mobile: +6281316730755.

Journal of Maternal and Child Health (2018), 3(4): 278-286
https://doi.org/10.26911/thejmch.2018.03.04.05

Full Text:

PDF

References

Ahmadi R. (2014). Pengantar Pendidikan. Yogyakarta: Arruzz media.

Ahmed MN, Fadel AE, Khedr HFN (2017). Stressors And Social Support Among Pregnant Women. Journal Of Nursing And Health Science, 6 (4): 52-58.

Baio J (2013). Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) Homepage data and Statistics. 27-07-2013. http//www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/data.html.

Deshinta R, Hardiani SR, Dewi IE (2015). Pengaruh Metode Glenn Doman terhadap Kemampuan Interaksi Sosial Anak Autis di SLBB dan Autis TPA (Taman Pendidikan dan Asuhan) Kabupaten Jember. e-Jurnal Pustaka Kesehatan, 3 (1).

Fujiwara T, Morisaki N, Honda Y, Sampei M, Tani Y (2016). Chemicals, nutrition, and autism spectrum disorder: A mini-review. Frontiers in Neuroscience. doi:10.3389/fnins.2016.00174.

Hardinsyah & Supariasa. (2016). Buku ilmu gizi: Teori dan Aplikasi, Jakarta: Penerbit buku kedokteran EGC.

Harti BL, Kusumastuty I, Hariadi I. (2016). Hubungan Status Gizi dan Pola Makan Terhadap Penambahan Berat Badan Ibu Hamil. Indonesian Journal Of Human Nutrition, 3 (1): 54-62.

Helland WA, Helland T (2017). Emotional and Behavioural Needs in Children with Speci?c Language Impairment and in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: the Importance of Pragmatic Language Impairment. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 70: 33 39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2017.08.009.

Hoogsteen L, Woodgate RL (2013). Centering Autism Within the Family: A Qualitative Approach to Autism and the Family. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 28: 135140. doi:10.1016/j.pedn.2012.06.002.

Jumaian AA, Dmour HH, Al Soud HM. (2011). No Relation Between Advanced Parental Age and The Risk of Autism Among Jordanian Children. Journal of the royal Medical Services, 18 : 27-32.

Lee BK, McGrath JJ (2015). Advancing Parental Age and Autism: Multifactorial Pathways. Trends in Molecular Medicine. doi:10.1016/j.molmed.20-14.11.005.

Manalu PA, Ramayanti I, Arsyad KHM (2013). Laporan Kasus: Faktor-Faktor Kejadian Penyakit Autisme Anak di Bina Autis Mandiri Palembang, Syifa Medika, 4 (1).

Murti B. (2013). Buku Desain dan Ukuran Sampel untuk Penelitian Kuantitatif dan Kualitatif di Bidang Kesehatan. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press.

Pangestu N, Fibriana IN (2017). Faktor Risiko Kejadian Autis, HIGEIA. journal of Public Health Research and Development, 1(2).

Parner ET, Baron CS, lauritsen MB, Jorgensen M, Schieve LA, Yeagin Allsop M (2012). Parental Age and autism Spectrum Disorder. Elsevier, 1-8.

Posserud M, Hysing M, Helland W (2016). Autism traits: the importance of comorbid problems for impairment and contact with services. Data from the Bergen Child Study. Research in Developmental Disabilities http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2016.01.002 in press.

Schetter DC, Tanner L (2012). Anxiety, Depression and Stess in Pregnancy: Implications for Mothers, Children, Research, and Practice. Behavioural Medicine, 2: 25-28.

Seymour M, Wood C, Giallo R, Jellett R (2013). Fatigue, Stress and Coping in Mothers of Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43: 15471554. doi:10.1007/s10803-012-1701-y.

Soetjiningsih, Ranuh Gde (2013). Buku Tumbuh Kembang Anak Edisi 2, Jakarta: Penerbit Buku Kedokteran EGC.

Taylor LE, Swerdfeger AL, Eslick GD (2014). Vaccines are not Associated with Autism: An Evidence-Based Meta-Analysis of Case-Control and Cohort Studies. Vaccine, 32: 36233629. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.04.085.

Zerbo O, Iosif AM, Walker C, Ozonoff S, Hansen RL, HertzPicciotto I (2013). Is Maternal Influenza or Fever during Pregnancy Associated with Autism or Developmental Delays? Results from the CHARGE (childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and Environment) Study. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43: 2533. doi:10.1007/s108030121540x.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.