User

Multilevel Analysis on the Determinants of Overweight and Obesity among Primary School Students in Boyolali, Central Java

Dwi Wijayanti, Harsono Salimo, Yulia Lanti Retno Dewi

Abstract

Background: Fat and obesity are serious problems in children because they will continue into adulthood. Diarrhea occurs in groups of children under five years old (toddlers). According to the 2013 risk assessment, in Boyolali District the prevalence of obesity in children was 11.6% consisted of 7.5% fat and 4.1% obese. This study aimed to examine the determinants of overweight and obesity among primary school students in Boyolali, Central Java.

Subjects and Method: This was an analytic observational study with a case-control design. The study was conducted at 25 elementary schools in Ngemplak sub-district, Boyolali, Central Java, from April 2017 to June 2018. A sample of 200 students was selected by fixed disease sampling. The dependent variable was fat and obese nutritional status. Independent variables were family income, pocket money, paternal BMI, maternal BMI, nutritional intake, and physical activity. The data were collected by questionnaire and analyzed by a multilevel linear regression.

Results: Family income (b= 1.65; 95% CI= 8.28 to 2.48; p<0.001), pocket money (b = 0.001; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.01; p<0.001), paternal BMI (b= 0.11; 95% CI = 0.06 to 0.16; p<0.001), maternal BMI (b= 0.06; 95% CI= 0.38 to 0.96; p<0.001), nutritional intake (b = 0.87; 95% CI= 0.35 to1.14; p= 0.001), and physical activity (b= -0.04; 95% CI= -0.05 to -0.06; p<0.001) increased fat and obesity in children. School had a strong contextual effect on fat and obesity among children with ICC= 14.34%.

Conclusion: Family income, pocket money, paternal BMI, maternal BMI, nutritional intake, and physical activity increase fat and obesity in children. The school has a strong contextual effect on fat and obesity among children.

Keywords: determinants, fat, obesity, physical activity, nutritional intake, multilevel analysis

Correspondence: Dwi Wijayanti. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret. Jl. Ir. Sutami No. 36A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java. Email: dwijaymail@gmail.com. Mobile:+6285642214066.

Journal of Maternal and Child Health (2019), 4(5): 304-311
https://doi.org/10.26911/thejmch.2019.04.05.01

Full Text:

PDF

References

Al-Nakeeb Y, Lyons M, Collins P, Al-Nuaim A, Al-Hazzaa A, Michael, Duncan, Nevill A (2012). Obesity, physical activity and sedentary behavior amongst British and Saudi Youth: A Cross-Cultural Study. Nt. J. Environ. Res. Public Health2012, 9, 1490-1506; doi: 10. 3390/ijerph9041490

Cadenas-Sanchez C, Henriksson P, Henriksson H, Delisle Nyström C, Pomeroy J, Ruiz JR, Ortega FB, Löf M (2017). Parental body mass index and its association with body composition, physical fitness and lifestyle factors in their 4-year-old children: results from the MINISTOP trial.Eur J Clin Nutr. 71(10):1200-1205. Doi: 10.1038/ ejcn.2017.62.

Choukem S, Kamdeu-Chedeu J, Leary S, MbouemDjieka Y, Nebongo D, Akazong C, Mapoure YN, Hamilton S, Gautier J, Claude J(2017). Overweight and obesity in children aged 3–13 years in urban Cameroon: a cross-sectional study of prevalence and association with socio-economic status. BMC Obesity 4:7. Doi: 10.1186/s40608-017-0146-4

Estevan I, García-Massó X, Molina García J, Barnett LM (2018).Identifying profiles of children at risk of being less physically active: an exploratory study using a self-organized map approach for motor competence.J Sports Sci. 25:1-9. Doi: 10.1080/0264041

Grammatikopoulou MG, Gkiouras K, Daskalou E, Apostolidou E, Theodoridis X, Stylianou C, Galli-Tsinopoulou A, et al., (2018). The Mediterranean diet and the buying power of adolescents in Greece. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 31(7):773-780. Doi: 10.1515/jpem-2018-0039.

Gustafson A, Jilcott Pitts S, McDonald J, Ford H, Connelly P, Gillespie R, Liu E, et al., (2017). Direct effects of the home, school, and consumer food environments on the association between food purchasing patterns and dietary intake among rural adolescents in Kentucky and North Carolina. International Journal of Environmental Study and Public Health. 14(10): E1255. doi: 10. 33-90/ijerph14101255.

Husni HK, Indrijanti H (2014). Pengaruh komparasi social pada model kecantikan di televise terhadap body image remaja putri obesitas. Jurnal Psikologi Pendidikan dan Perkembangan, 3(3), 207-212.

Jalali-Farahani S, Amiri P, Abbasi B, Karimi M, Cheraghi L, Daneshpour MS, Azizi F (2017). Maternal characteristics and incidence of overweight/ obesity in children: A 13-year follow-up study in an Eastern Mediterranean Population. Matern Child Health J. 21(5):1211-1220. doi: 10.1007/s10995-016-2222-7.

Jilcott SB, Wade S, McGuirt JT, Wu Q, Lazorick S, Moore JB (2011). The association between the food environment and weight status among Eastern North Carolina Youth. Public Health Nutr. 14, 1610–1617.

Hesketh R, Lakshman, Van S (2017). Barriers and facilitators to young children's physical activity and sedentary behavior: A systematic review and synthesis of qualitative literature. Obesity Reviews. 18, 987–1017, doi: 10. 1111/obr. 12562

Li M, Xue H, Jia P, Zhao Y, Wang Z, Xu F, Wang Y (2017). Pocket money, eating behaviors, and weight status among Chinese children: The childhood obesity study in China megacities. Prev Med. 100:208-215. Doi: 10.1016/-j.ypmed.2017.04.031.

Mohammed S, Hanim AS, Amallina NM, Othman N, Nabeel W (2018). Factors predicting pediatric obesity among primary school children in Kuantan. International Journal of Care Scholars. 1(1).

Niswah SR, Soemanto RB, Murti B (2017). Factors associated with overweight and obesity in adolescents in Karta-sura, Central Java. Journal of Health Promotion and Behavior. 2(3): 207-217. https://doi.org/thejhpb.2016.02-.03.02

Nudhira U, Wekadigunawan SP, Murti B (2017). Path analysis of life course factors affecting overweight and obesity in children aged 2 to 5 years old in Surakarta. Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health (2017), 2(3): 267-283. https://doi.org/10.26911/jepublichealth.2017.02.03.08

Parengkuan RR, Mayulu N, Ponidjan T (2013). Hubungan pendapatan keluarga dengan kejadian obesitas pada anak sekolah dasar di kota Manado. Jurnal Keperawatan, 1(1).

Punitha VC, Amudhan A, Sivaprakasam P, Rathnaprabhu V (2014). Pocket money: Influence on body mass index and dental caries among urban ado-lescents. Journal Clinic Diagnostic Research 8(12).doi: 10.7860/JCDR/2014/10498.5310

Rehani M (2017). Report Card on Access to Obesity Treatment for Adults in Canada. Canadian Obesity Network-Réseau Canadien en obésité. Edmon-ton, AB: Canadian Obesity Network Inc.

Sigmund E, Badura P, Sigmundová D, Voráčová J, Zacpal J, Kalman M, Pavelka J, et al., (2018). Trends and correlates of overweight/obesity in Czech adolescents in relation to family socioeconomic status over a 12-year study period (2002-2014). BMC Public Health. 18(1):122. doi: 10. 1186/s12889-017-5013-1.

Syahrul S, Kimura R, Tsuda A, Susanto T, Saito R, Ahmad F (2016). Prevalence of underweight and overweight among school-aged children and it's association with children's socio-demographic and lifestyle in Indonesia. International Journal of Nursing Sciences. 3. 169e177

Taha AA, Marawan HM (2015). Socio-behavioral determinants of overweight and obesity in Egyptian Primary School children. Journal of Child & Adolescent Behavior, 3: 236. Doi:10. 4172/2375-4494. 1000236

Tovey M (2017). Obesity and the public purse: weighing up the true cost to the taxpayer. The Institute of Economic Affairs Discussion Paper No. 80

Umairah SN, Yahya BT, Yusof SM (2012). The relationship between dietary pattern and body mass index among primary school children. Asia J Clin Nutr, 4, 142-50

WHO (2014). Obesity and inequities: guidance for addressing inequities in overweight and obesity. WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data.

WHO (2017). Adolescent obesity and related behaviors: Trends and inequalities in the WHO European Region, 2002 to 2014. WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data.

Widiyanto A, Murti B, Soemanto RB (2018). Multilevel analysis on the effects of socio-cultural, lifestyle factors, and school environment, on the risk of overweight in adolescents, Karanganyar District, Central Java. Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health, 3(1): 94-104. https://doi.org/10.26911/jepublichealth.2018.03.01.08.

Yamborisut U, Mosuwan L (2014). Prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity in Thailand: A Review. J Med Assoc Thai; 97 (1): 44-51.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.