Meta Analysis: Effect of Exclusive Breastfeeding on Child’s Development

Authors

  • Feby Dwiantini Master’s Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret
  • Eti Poncorini Pamungkasari Master’s Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret
  • Rita Benya Adriani Study Program in Nursing, School of Health Polytechnics, Ministry of Health, Surakarta

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.26911/thejmch.2024.09.01.05

Abstract

Background: Breast milk contains enough nutritional content for infants aged 0 to 6 months even without additional food. Exclusive breastfeeding has a positive impact on growth and development disorders experienced by babies. This study aimed to analyze and estimate the effect size of exclusive breastfeeding on 5 areas of child development, namely gross motor, fine motor, communication, problem solving and personal social.

Subjects and Method: It was a meta-analysis study conducted in accordance to PRISMA flow chart and PICO. Population= children aged 6 months to 5 years. Intervention= exclusive breast­feed­ing. Comparison= non-exclusive breastfeeding. Outcome= child development (gross motor, fine motor, communication, problem solving, and personal social). Articles were obtained from Google Schoolar, Science Direct, and PubMed. Inclusion criterias were cohort study, full text article, and child development measurement using the ages & stages questionnaire. Data analysis was conducted using Revman 5.3.

Results: 8 cohort studies from the America, Australia, Europe, Africa, and Asia were selected for meta-analysis. Total sample was 22,048. Exclusive breastfeeding increased child’s development (aOR= 1.07; 95% CI= 1.04 to 1.10; p < 0.001). Exclusive breastfeeding had a positive effect on all five areas of gross motor development (aOR= 1.05; 95% CI= 1.00 to 1.10; p= 0.030), fine motor (aOR= 1.10; 95% CI= 1.02 to 1.18; p= 0.009), communication (aOR= 1.06; 95% CI = 1.01 to 1.11; p= 0.020), problem solving (aOR= 1.12; 95% CI= 1.02 to 1.21; p= 0.010) and personal social (aOR= 1.10; 95% CI= 1.03 to 1.17; p= 0.005).

Conclusion: Exclusive breastfeeding significantly increases child’s development.

Keywords: exclusive breastfeeding, gross motor development, fine motor development, personal social, children under five

Correspondence: Feby Dwiantini. Master’s Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret. Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java. Email: feby.dee05@gmail.com. Mobile: +628529290279.

Keywords:

children under-five, gross motor development, fine motor development, personal social, children under five

References

Ali SS, Dhaded, Goudar S (2014). The impact of nutrition on child development at 3 years in a rural community of India. Int J Prev Med. 5(4):494-9. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24829738.

Andres A, Cleves MA, Bellando JB, Pivik RT, Casey PH, Badger TM (2012). Developmental status of 1-year-old infants fed breast milk, cow's milk formula, or soy formula. Pediatrics, 129(6):1134-40. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2011-3121.

Andres A, Cleves MA, Bellando JB, Pivik RT, Casey PH, Badger TM (2012). Developmental status of 1-year-old infants fed breast milk, cow’s milk formula, or soy formula. Pediatrics, 129(6), 1134–1140. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2011-3121

Banerjee PN, McFadden KE, Shannon JD, Davidson LL (2022). Does breastfeeding account for the association between maternal sensitivity and infant cognitive development in a large, nationally representative cohort? BMC Pediatrics, 22(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12887-022-03133-4

Bar S, Milanaik R, Adesman A (2016). Long-term neurodevelopmental benefits of breastfeeding. Curr Opin Pediatr, 28(4), 559–566. https://doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000389.

Baumgartel K, Jensen L, White SW, Wong, K, Straker L, Leonard H, Finlay-Jones, A, Downs J (2020). The contributions of fetal growth restriction and gestational age to developmental outcomes at 12 months of age: a cohort study. Early Hum Dev. 142, 104951. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2020.1-04951

Campos AP, Vilar-Compte M, Hawkins SS (2021). Association between breastfeeding and child overweight in Mexico. Food Nutr Bull. 42(3), 414–426. https://doi.org/10.1177/03795721211014778.

Chiu WC, Liao HF, Chang PJ, Chen PC, Chen YC (2011). Duration of breast feeding and risk of developmental delay in Taiwanese children: a nationwide birth cohort study. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 25(6), 519–527. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.13653016.2011.01236.x.

De Mola CL, Horta BL, Gonçalves H, Quevedo LDA, Pinheiro R, Gigante D.P, Dos Santos Motta JV, et al. (2016). Breastfeeding and mental health in adulthood: a birth cohort study in Brazil. J Affect Disord. 202: 115–119. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2016.05.055.

de Onis M, Branca F (2016). Childhood stunting: a global perspective. Matern Child Nutr. 12, 12–26. https://doi.org/10.1111/mcn.12231.

Gomez-Sanchiz M, Canete R, Rodero I, Baeza JE, Gonzalez JA (2004). Influence of breastfeeding and parental in the 24-month-old child. Clin Pediatr (Phila), 43(8):753-61. https://doi:10.1177/000992280404300811.

Kim KM, Choi JW (2020). Associations between breastfeeding and cognitive function in children from early childhood to school age: A prospective birth cohort study. Int Breastfeed J. 15(1), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13006020003264

Liu YW, Liu H, Huang K, Zhu BB, Yan SQ, Hao JH, Zhu P, et al. (2023). The association between pregnancy-related anxiety and behavioral development in 18-month-old children: the mediating effects of parenting styles and breastfeeding methods. J Affect Disord. 333, 392–402. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2023.04.014.

Madlala HP, Myer L, Malaba TR, Newell ML (2020). Neurodevelopment of HIV-exposed uninfected children in Cape Town, South Africa. PLoS ONE. 15, 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0242244.

Martínez-Nadal S, Demestre X, Schonhaut L, Muñoz SR, Sala P (2018). Impact of neonatal morbidity on the risk of developmental delay in late preterm infants. Early Hum Dev. 116, 40–46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2017.11.001

McCrory C, Murray A (2013). The effect of breastfeeding on neurodevelopment in infancy. Matern Child Health J. 17(9), 1680–1688. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s1099501211829

Mirzakhani H, Kelly RS, Yadama AP, Chu SH, Lasky-Su JA, Litonjua AA, Weiss ST (2020). Stability of developmental status and risk of impairment at 24 and 36 months in late preterm infants. Infant Behav Dev. 60, 101462. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infbeh.2020.101462.

Oddy WH, Robinson M, Kendall GE, Li J, Zubrick SR, Stanley FJ (2011). Breastfeeding and early child development: a prospective cohort study. Acta Paediatr Int J Paediatr. 100(7), 992–999. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.16512227.2011.02199.x.

Prentice AM (2022). Breastfeeding in the modern world. Ann Nutr Metab. 78(2), 29–38. https://doi.org/10.1159/000524354.

Putnick DL, Bell EM, Ghassabian A, Mendola P, Sundaram R, Yeung EH (2023). Maternal antenatal depression’s effects on child developmental delays: gestational age, postnatal depressive symptoms, and breastfeeding as mediators. J Affect Disord. 324, 424–432. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2022.12.059.

Rocha HAL, Correia LL, Leite ÁJM, Rocha SGMO, Machado MMT, Campos JS, Cunha AJLA, et al. (2022). Undernutrition and short duration of breastfeeding association with child development: a population-based study. J Pediatr. 98(3), 316–322. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jped.2021.07.003

Rodrigues C, Zeitlin J, Zemlin M, Wilson E, Pedersen P, Barros H (2022). Never-breastfed children face a higher risk of suboptimal cognition at 2 years of corrected age: a multinational cohort of very preterm children. Matern Child Nutr. 18(3), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1111/mcn.13347.

Rukanah R (2021). Relationship of breastfeeding with gross and fine motor skills development in infant 6-12 months. JoViN. 2(1), 25. https://doi.org/10.20473/jovin.v2i1.26434.

Salah El Din EM, Rabah TM, Metwally AM, Nassar MS, Elabd MA, Shalaan A, Kandeel W, et al. (2019). Potential risk factors of developmental cognitive delay in the first two years of life. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 7(12), 2024–2030. https://doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2019.566

Sanefuji M, Senju A, Shimono M, Ogawa M, Sonoda Y, Torio M, Ichimiya Y, et al. (2021). Breast feeding and infant development in a cohort with sibling pair analysis: the Japan environment and children’s study. BMJ Open. 11(8), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen2020043202

Sinno D, Tamim H, Faytrouni F, Mikati MA, Charafeddine L (2018). Factors affecting child development assessed by the ages and stages questionnaire (ASQ) in an Arabic speaking population. Early Hum Dev. 120, 61–66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2018.04.002.

Stuebe A (2009). The risks of not breastfeeding for mothers and infants. Rev Obstet Gynecol. 2(4), 222–231. https://doi.org/10.3909/riog0093.

UNICEF (2020). Country profiles for early childhood development. https://nurturing-care.org/resources/country-profiles/.

UNICEF (2022). For every child, every opportunity. www.unicef.org.

UNICEF Indonesia (2023). Mothers need more support amid decline in Indonesia’s breastfeeding rates. https://www.unicef.org/indonesia/nutrition/pressreleases/mothers-need-more-support-amid-decline-indonesias-breastfeeding-rates

Victora CG, Bahl R, Barros AJD, França GVA, Horton S, Krasevec J, Murch S, et al. (2016). Breastfeeding in the 21st century: epidemiology, mechanisms, and lifelong effect. Lancet. 387 (10017), 475–490. https://doi.org/10.1016/S01406736(15)010247.

WHO (2023). Child mortality and causes of death. https://www.who.int/data/gho/data/themes/topics/topic-details/GHO/child-mortality-and-causes-of-death

Zaragoza-Cortes J, Trejo-Osti LE, Ocampo-Torres M, Maldonado-Vargas L, Ortiz-Gress AA (2018). Poor breastfeeding, complementary feeding and dietary diversity in children and their relationship with stunting in rural communities. Nutr Hosp. 35(2):271-278. doi: 10.20960/nh.1352.

Downloads

Published

2024-01-16

How to Cite

Dwiantini, F., Pamungkasari, E. P., & Adriani, R. B. (2024). Meta Analysis: Effect of Exclusive Breastfeeding on Child’s Development . Journal of Maternal and Child Health, 9(1), 47–61. https://doi.org/10.26911/thejmch.2024.09.01.05

Issue

Section

Articles