Effects of Husband Support, Family Income, Employed Mothers, and Antenatal Care Visit on Exclusive Breastfeeding


  • Reza Widiantoro Master’s Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret
  • Khairunnisa Khairunnisa1 Master's Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret
  • Mashaf Fahrur Murdo Furqon Master's Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret
  • Bhisma Murti Master's Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret
  • Anggun Fitri Handayani Professional Study Program of Midwifery, Universitas Muhammadiyah Kudus




Background: Breastfeeding is advantageous to the infants health. Employed mothers experienced various challenges in providing exclusive breastfeeding. Studies suggest that husband support contribute to lactating mothers efficacy, improves breastfed duration, and reduces risk factors for bottle feeding. This study aimed to estimate the influence of husband's support, income, working mother, and ANC visits on exclusive breastfeeding.

Subjects and Method: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted using PRISMA and PICO model. Population= lactating mothers. Intervention= low husband's support, high income, employed mother, irregular ANC visit. Comparison= high husband's support, low income, unemployed mother, regular ANC visits. Outcome= exclusive breastfeeding. Articles published from 2013 to 2023 were collected from Google Scholar, PubMed, and Science Direct. Literature search using the keywords "family support or husband support" AND "Income" AND "Employment" AND "Antenatal Care Visit" or "ANC Visit" AND "Exclusive Breastfeeding" AND "Cross Sectional". Selected articles were assessed using RevMan 5.3.

Results: 18 cross sectional studies from Indonesia, Ethiopia, Somalia, Brazil, Thailand, Taiwan, Jordan, and India were selected for meta-analysis. Total sample was 7,234. High husband's support (aOR= 3.41; 95% CI= 2.36 to 4.91; p= 0.010), regular ANC visits (aOR=1.87; 95% CI= 1.11 to 3.17; p= 0.020) significantly increased exclusive breastfeeding. High income (aOR= 1.11; 95% CI= 0.51 to 2.44; p=0.790) and unemployment mothers (aOR= 1.11; 95% CI= 0.46 to 2.68; p=0.820) increased exclusive breastfeeding, but it was statistically non-significant.

Conclusion: High husband support, regular ANC visits, high income, and unemployed mothers increase exclusive breastfeeding.


husband support, income, employment, antenatal care, exclusive breastfeeding


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How to Cite

Widiantoro, R., Khairunnisa1, K., Furqon, M. F. M., Murti, B., & Handayani, A. F. (2024). Effects of Husband Support, Family Income, Employed Mothers, and Antenatal Care Visit on Exclusive Breastfeeding . Journal of Maternal and Child Health, 9(1), 62–77. https://doi.org/10.26911/thejmch.2024.09.01.06