Multilevel Analysis on the Determinants of Overweight and Obesity among Primary School Students in Boyolali, Central Java


  • Dwi Wijayanti Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret
  • Harsono Salimo Department of Pediatrics, Dr. Moewardi Hospital/ Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sebelas Maret
  • Yulia Lanti Retno Dewi Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sebelas Maret


Background: Fat and obesity are serious problems in children because they will continue into adulthood. Diarrhea occurs in groups of children under five years old (toddlers). According to the 2013 risk assessment, in Boyolali District the prevalence of obesity in children was 11.6% consisted of 7.5% fat and 4.1% obese. This study aimed to examine the determinants of overweight and obesity among primary school students in Boyolali, Central Java.

Subjects and Method: This was an analytic observational study with a case-control design. The study was conducted at 25 elementary schools in Ngemplak sub-district, Boyolali, Central Java, from April 2017 to June 2018. A sample of 200 students was selected by fixed disease sampling. The dependent variable was fat and obese nutritional status. Independent variables were family income, pocket money, paternal BMI, maternal BMI, nutritional intake, and physical activity. The data were collected by questionnaire and analyzed by a multilevel linear regression.

Results: Family income (b= 1.65; 95% CI= 8.28 to 2.48; p<0.001), pocket money (b = 0.001; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.01; p<0.001), paternal BMI (b= 0.11; 95% CI = 0.06 to 0.16; p<0.001), maternal BMI (b= 0.06; 95% CI= 0.38 to 0.96; p<0.001), nutritional intake (b = 0.87; 95% CI= 0.35 to1.14; p= 0.001), and physical activity (b= -0.04; 95% CI= -0.05 to -0.06; p<0.001) increased fat and obesity in children. School had a strong contextual effect on fat and obesity among children with ICC= 14.34%.

Conclusion: Family income, pocket money, paternal BMI, maternal BMI, nutritional intake, and physical activity increase fat and obesity in children. The school has a strong contextual effect on fat and obesity among children.

Keywords: determinants, fat, obesity, physical activity, nutritional intake, multilevel analysis



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How to Cite

Wijayanti, D., Salimo, H., & Dewi, Y. L. R. (2019). Multilevel Analysis on the Determinants of Overweight and Obesity among Primary School Students in Boyolali, Central Java. Journal of Maternal and Child Health, 4(5), 294–301. Retrieved from