Evaluation of Placental Pathology in Term Low Birth Weight Babies
Background: Low birth weight is the single most risk factor for perinatal mortality and placenta due to its importance in fetomaternal circulation plays an important role in pregnancy outcome. The present study aims to evaluate the pathological changes in the placenta in term (38-42 weeks) low birth weight babies.
Subjects and Method: It is case control study done in Jorhat Medical College and Hospital during the period from June 2020 to May 2021. Consecutive sampling was done. 100 placentae were subjected to detailed gross and histological examination. Sixty placentae were from full term babies with birth weight less than 2,500g (LBW). Fourty placentae from full term babies with birth weight more than 2,500g were included in control group. Weight of the baby was taken within the 1st hour of birth and APGAR score was noted. Gross and microscopic examination of placentae was done. Statistical correlation was carried out between them by using Student t-test with SPSS software, P value <0.05 was taken as statistically significant.
Results: Weight of term LBW cases placentae were lighter compared to control, diameter of the placentae in term LBW cases placenta was lesser compared to control (p= 0.045). The syncytial knot count, cytotrophoblastic cell proliferation and perivillous fibrin deposition was more in placentae of term LBW cases compared to controls (p= 0.045).
Conclusion: Placental pathology among term LBW cases was high in comparison tocontrol group. The present study shows the importance of histopathological examination of the placenta to know the exact mechanism of placental dysfunction in term LBW cases.
Keywords: low birth weight, perivillous fibrin deposition, syncytial knot count, cytotrophoblastic cell proliferation.
Correspondence:Dr Sanchita Paul ,house no.129, karimganj, Assam. Pin: 788710. Phone: 9678801472, Email: email@example.com.
Journal of Maternal and Child Health (2022), 07(05): 572-579
American college of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, ACOG practice bullet in no 102 (2009). Management of still-birth. Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. 113: 748-61
Azpura H, Funai EF, Coraluzzi LM, Doherty LF, Sasson IE, Kliman M, Kliman HJ (2010). Determination of placental weight using two dimensional sonography and volumetric mathematic modelling. Am J Perinatal. 27(2): 151-155. doi: 10.1055/s-0029-1234034
Benirshke K, Kaufmann P (1981). The Placenta: How to examine it and what you can learn. Contemp Obstet Gynaecol. 17: p. 117-9.
Brett KE, Ferraro ZM, Yockell-Lelievre J, Gruslin A, Adamo KB (2014). Maternal-fetal nutrient transport in pregnancy pathologies: the role of the placenta. Int J Mol Sci. 15(9):16153-85. doi: 10.3390/ijms150916153.
Dutta DC (2004). Low birth weight baby. Text book of obstetrics. 6th edition. Kolkata: Central. p. 458-7
Genest DR (1992). Estimating the time of death in stillborn fetuses: II. Histolo-gic evaluation of the placenta; a study of 71 stillborns. Obstet Gynecol. 80 (4): 585-92.
Hemlata M, Kumar MP, Jankai M, Dudala SR (2014). Histopathological ecaluation of placentas in IUGR pregnancies. Asian Pac J, Health Sci. 1(4): 566-9
Jadhav CR, Srinivasamurthy BC, Bhat RV, Agrawal V, Kumar H (2018). Placental pathology in low birth weight babies a prospective observational study. Indian J Pathol Oncol. 5(2): 178-83. https://doi.org/10.18231/2394-6792.2018.0034
Katzman PJ, Genest DR (2002). Maternal floor infarction and massive perivillous fibrin deposition: histological definitions, association with intrauterine fetal growth restriction, and risk of recurrence. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 5(2): 159-64. doi: 10.1007/s10024001-019-5-y. Erratum in: Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2003 Jan-Feb;6(1):102.
Magesh P, Sheeba D, Ravi S, S Subashini, Varghese D (2019). Placental histopathology in full term low birth weight new born babies in a tertiary care centre. J Med. Sci. Clin Res. 7(2): 251-4. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.18535/jmscr/v7i2.47
Mardi K, Sharma J (2003). Histopathological evaluation of placentas in IUGR pregnancies. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 46(4):551-4.
Nigam J, Misra V, Singh P, Singh P, Chauhan S, Thakur B (2014). Histopathological study of placentae in low birth weight babies in India. Ann Med Health Sci Res. 2014 Jul;4(Suppl 2): S79-83. doi: 10.4103/21419248.138016.
Oliveira LH, Xavier CC, Lana AM (2002). Altera
Park K (2017). Textbook of preventive and social medicine, 24th ed. India. Bhanot Publications. 2017. p. 570-2.
Park K (2011). Textbook of preventive and social medicine, 21st ed. India. Bhanot Publications. 2011. p. 481
Park K (2011). Textbook of preventive and social medicine, 21st ed. India. Bhanot Publications. 2011. p. 481-560.
Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (2010). Green top guideline 55. Late intrauterine fetal death and still birth. London: Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
Public health foundation of India (2015). India health report: nutrition 2015
Roberts DJ (2008). Placental pathology, a survival guide. Arch Pathil Lab Med. 641- 651.
Sing S, Pemmaraju A (2017). Comparison of Placental Histopathology in IUG Rand Normal Term Infants: A Cross-Sectional Study. J. Med. Dent. Sci. 16901): 36-40. doi: 10.9790/0853-1601103640
Paiva de Alvarez S, Guevara J, Guevera B, Nuccio C, Kizer S (1986). Analysis of the placenta and intrauterine growth delay. Obstet Ginecol Latinoam. 44: 179-86.
Under-Five Mortality and Low Birth Weight (2019). Lancet Global Health. Indian Express. 2019, May 16.
The burden of child and maternal malnutrition and trends in its indicators in the states of India: the global burden of disease study 1990-2017.
Veena A, Nisha N, Debashish S, Nag PP, Marthur A (2014). Placental morphology in low birth weight indants. J. Evo. Med. Dent. Sci. 3(29): 8251-9. Retrieved from: link.gale.com/apps/doc/A467680776/AONE?u=anon~5d4bc29d&sid=googleScholar&xid=6fa0d43b. Accessed 23 Aug. 2022