Rising Trends of Cesarean Section in Bangladesh: Associated Factors and Long-Term Complications on Health of Mother and Children
Background: With taking into consideration of the high cesarean section (CS) rate, the objectives of this study were to ascertain factors associated with and point out metamorphose complications with high CS rates in Bangladesh.
Subjects and Method: A cross-sectional study accounted for data collection from rural (196) and urban (241) women who gave birth to babies between 2005 and 2018 in Chattogram, Bangladesh. The study subjects were selected by using a systematic random sampling technique and the sample size was determined by using web-based Raosoft software. The delivery modes were dependent variables whereas influential factors and complications related to delivery were independent variables. The data were collected through face-to-face interviews using a pre-structured question
Agudelo-Espitia V, Parra-Sosa BE, Restre-po-Mesa SL (2019). Factors associated with fetal macrosomia. Revista de Saude Publica. 53:100. doi: 10.11606/s1518-8787.2019053001269.
Ahmmed F, Manik MMR, Hossain MJ (2021). Caesarian section (CS) delivery in Bangladesh: A nationally representative cross-sectional study. PLOS ONE 16(7): e0254777. https://doi.org/10.13-71/journal.pone.0254777
Anwar I, Sami M, Akhtar N, Chowdhury ME, Salma U, Rahman M, Koblinsky M (2008). Inequity in maternal health-care services: evidence from home-based skilled-birth-attendant programmes in Bangladesh. Bull World Health Organ. 86(4):252-9. doi: 10.2471/blt.07.042754.
Beta J, Khan N, Khalil A, Fiolna M, Rama-dan G, Akolekar R (2019). Maternal and neonatal complications of fetal macrosomia: systematic review and meta-analysis. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 54(3): 308-318. doi: 10.1002/uog.20279.
Busaidi AI, Al-Farsi Y, Ganguly S, Gowri V (2012). Obstetric and non-obstetric risk factors for cesarean section in oman. Oman Med J. 27(6):478-81. doi: 10.5001/omj.2012.114.
Cegolon L, Mastrangelo G, Maso G, Dal Pozzo G, Ronfani L, Cegolon A, Heymann WC, et al. (2020). Understanding factors leading to primary cesarean section and vaginal birth after cesarean delivery in the friuli-venezia giulia region (North-Eastern Italy), 2005-2015. Scientific Reports. 10(1):380. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-57037-y.
Diana V, Tipandjan A (2016). Emergency and elective caesarean sections: comparison of maternal and fetal outcomes in a suburban tertiary care hospital in Puducherry. Int J Reprod, Contracep, Obstet and Gynecol. 5(9): 3060
Dorji T, Wangmo K, Dorjey Y, Dorji N, Kiran Chhetri D, Tshering S, Wangmo P, et al. (2021). Indications and factors associated with cesarean section in Bhutan: A hospital-based study. Int. J. Gynaecol Obstet. 153(3): 520-526. doi: 10.1002/ijgo.13506.
Farzana T, Kabir J (2014). A Comparative Study on the Preference for Delivery Process in Bangladesh. ABC J Adv Res. 3(1): 24-28. doi: 10.18034/-abcjar.v3i1.28.
Feng XL, Xu L, Guo Y, Ronsmans C (2012). Factors influencing rising caesarean section rates in China between 1988 and 2008. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 90(1): 30-9, 39A. doi: 10.2471/BLT.11.090399.
Gondwe T, Betha K, Kusneniwar GN, Bunker CH, Tang G, Simhan H, Reddy PS, et al. (2019). Maternal factors associated with mode of delivery in a population with a high cesarean section rate. Journal Epidemiol Glob Health. 9(4): 252-258. doi: 10.2991/jegh.k.191017.001.
Hasan F, Alam MM, Hossain MG (2019. Associated factors and their individual contributions to caesarean delivery among married women in Bangladesh: Analysis of Bangladesh demographic and health survey data. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 19, 433. doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12884-019-2588-9.
Hou X, Rakhshani NS, Iunes R (2014). Fac-tors associated with high Cesarean deliveries in China and Brazil - A Call for reducing elective surgeries in moving towards Universal Health Coverage. J Hosp Adm. 3: 67. doi: 10.5430/jha.v3n5p671
Islam MM, Islam MK, Hasan MS, Hossain MB (2017) Adolescent motherhood in Bangladesh: Trends and determinants. PLoS ONE 12(11): e0188294. doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0188294
Islam MM, Noor FM (2021). Prevalence and factors of cesarean delivery among Bangladeshi reproductive aged women: evidence from multiple Indi-cator cluster survey 2019 data. Journal of Public Health. 1
Kamal SM (2013). Preference for institutional delivery and caesarean sections in Bangladesh. J. Health Popul Nutr, 31(1): 96-109. doi: 10.3329/jhpn.v31i1.14754.
Keag OE, Norman JE, Stock SJ (2018). Long-term risks and benefits associated with cesarean delivery for mother, baby, and subsequent pregnancies: Systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Medicine. 15(1): e100-2494. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.100-2494.
Kotsev S (2011). Ogilvie's syndrome following cesarean delivery: The Dubai's case. Saudi journal of anaesthesia. 5(3), 335-338. doi: https://doi.org/10.4103/1658-354X.84117.
Kulas T, Bursac D, Zegarac Z, Planinic-Rados G, Hrgovic Z (2013). New views on cesarean section, its possible complications and long-term consequences for children's health. Medical Archives. 67(6):460-463. doi: 10.5455/medarh.2013.67.460-463.
Lee HC, Gould JB, Boscardin WJ, El-Sayed YY, Blumenfeld YJ (2011). Trends in cesarean delivery for twin births in the United States: 1995-2008. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 118(5):1095-1101. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e3182318651.
Leone T, Padmadas SS, Matthews Z (2008). Community factors affecting rising caesarean section rates in developing countries: an analysis of six countries. Soc Sci Med. 67(8):1236-46. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.06.032.
Mascarello KC, Horta BL, Silveira MF (2017). Maternal complications and cesarean section without indication: systematic review and meta-analysis. Rev Saude Publica. 51:105. doi: 10.11-606/S1518-8787.2017051000389.
Miller JE, Goldacre R, Moore HC, Zeltzer J, Knight M, Morris C, Nowell S, et al. (2020). Mode of birth and risk of infection-related hospitalisation in childhood: A population cohort study of 7.17 million births from 4 high-income countries. PLoS Medicine. 17(11): e1003429. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1003429.
Moore HC, de Klerk N, Holt P, Richmond PC, Lehmann D (2012). Hospitalisation for bronchiolitis in infants is more common after elective caesarean delivery. Arch Dis Child. 97(5):410-4. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2011-300607.
Nazir S (2015). Determinants of cesarean deliveries in Pakistan. PIDE Working Papers. 122: 1-16.
Rahman M, Ahmad Shariff A, Shafie A, Saaid R, Md Tahir R (2014). Determinants of caesarean risk factor in northern region of Bangladesh: a multivariate analysis. Iranian journal of public health. 43(1): 16-27.
Rahman MM, Haider MR, Moinuddin M, Rahman AE, Ahmed S, Khan MM (2018). Determinants of caesarean section in Bangladesh: cross-sectional analysis of Bangladesh demographic and health survey 2014 data. PLoS ONE 13(9): e0202879. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0202879.
Sandall J, Tribe RM, Avery L, Mola G, Visser GH, Homer CS, Gibbons D, et al. (2018). Short-term and long-term effects of caesarean section on the health of women and children. Lancet. 392 (10155):1349-1357. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)319305.
Shabnam S (2016). Caesarean section delivery in India: causes and concerns.
Shahabuddin AS, Delvaux T, Utz B, Bardaj
Sheiner E, Levy A, Feinstein U, Hallak M, Mazor M (2002). Risk factors and outcome of failure to progress during the first stage of labor: a population-based study. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. 81(3):222-6.
Sikder SS, Labrique AB, Ali H, Hanif AA, Klemm RD, Mehra S, West KP Jr, et al. (2015). Availability of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) among public and private health facilities in rural northwest Bangladesh. BMC Public Health. 15:36. doi: 10.1186/s12889-015-1405-2.