Predictors of Mortality of Pediatric Patients with COVID-19 in Dr Moewardi General Hospital Surakarta


  • Dwi Suryaning Ayu Aprilizia Department of Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, Sebelas Maret University/ Dr. Moewardi Hospital, Surakarta
  • Ismiranti Andarini Department of Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, Sebelas Maret University/ Dr. Moewardi Hospital, Surakarta
  • Yulidar Hafidh Department of Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, Sebelas Maret University/ Dr. Moewardi Hospital, Surakarta



Background: COVID-19 has spread all over the world and became a global pandemic. In Indonesia, COVID-19 has officially defined the non-natural disaster of COVID-19 spread as national disaster in April 13th 2020. COVID-19 cases are predominant in adult population with higher severity particularly if accompanied with comorbidities resulting in a relatively high mortality rate. However, some recent studies showed that children are at a similar or higher risk to COVID-19 compared to adults. This study aims to evaluate the predictors of mortality in pediatric COVID-19 cases.

Subjects and Method: This study used a cross-sectional design using data from medical records of pediatric patients with confirmed COVID-19 who were hospitalized in the isolation ward of Dr Moewardi General Hospital from March 2020 to August 2021. All variables with significant result in the bivariate analysis were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Data were analyzed using SPSS (IBM SPSS Statistics version 25) with significance of p value of < 0.05.

Results: Results of this study showed that age 10-17 years (OR= 16.26; 95% CI= 1.47 to 179.56; p= 0.023), the use of oxygen mask (OR= 45.89; 95% CI = 5.39 to 390.58; p <0.001), and the use of continued oxygen therapy (OR= 181.48; 95% CI=11.25 to 2927.80; p <0.001) are predictors of mortality in pediatric patients with confirmed COVID-19.

Conclusion: Age 10-17 years, use of oxygen mask and advanced oxygen therapy are predictors of mortality in pediatric patients with COVID-19 hospitalized in Dr Moewardi General Hospital Surakarta.

Keywords: mortality, COVID-19, pediatric.



Akseer N, Kandru G, Keats EC, Bhutta ZA (2020). COVID-19 pandemic and mitigation strategies: implications for maternal and child health and nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr. 112(2):251–256. doi:10.1093/ajcn/nqaa171

Beric-Stojsic B, Kalabalik-Hoganson J, Rizzolo D, Roy S (2020). Childhood immunization and COVID-19: an early narrative review. Frontiers in Public Health. 8:587007. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2020.587007

Burhan E, Susanto D, Nasution SA, Ginanjar E, Pitoyo CW, Susilo A, Firdaus I, et al. (2020). Pedoman tatalaksana COVID-19 edisi 3. Jakarta: PDPI, PERKI, PAPDI, PERDATIN, IDAI.

General Office of the National Health Commission of Cina (2020). Diagnosis and treatment protocol for 2019-nCoV. 5th ed. Beijing, Cina: National Health Commission of Cina

González-Dambrauskas S, Vásquez-Hoyos P, Camporesi A, Díaz-Rubio F, Piñeres-Olave BE, Fernández-Sarmiento J (2020). Pediatric critical care and COVID-19. Pediatrics. 146(3):1-5. doi: 10.1542/peds.2020-1766

Kemenkes RI (2014). Peraturan menteri kesehatan nomor 25 tahun 2014 tentang upaya kesehatan anak (Minister of health regulation number 25 of 2014 concerning child health efforts). Jakarta: Kemenkes.

Kemenkes RI (2020). Keputusan presiden republik indonesia nomor 12 tahun 2020 tentang penetapan bencana nonalam penyebaran corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) sebagai bencana nasional (Presidential Decree of the Republic of Indonesia number 12 of 2020 concerning the determination of non-natural disasters that spread the corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as a national disaster). Jakarta: Kemenkes

Kurtz A, Grant K, Marano R, Arrieta A, Feaster W (2021). Long-term effects of malnutrition on severity of COVID-19. Sci Rep 11(1): 14974. doi: 10.1038/s4159802194138z

Ma A, Cheng J, Yang J, Dong M, Liao X, Kang Y (2020). Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio as a predictive biomarker for moderate-severe ARDS in severe COVID-19 patients. Crit Care 24(288).

Mahrous ES, Mokbel RA (2021). Children and COVID-19. International Egyptian Journal of Nursing Sciences and Research. 1(2):1-5.

Mancia G, Rea F, Ludergnani M, Apolone G, Corrao G (2020). Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone system blockers and the risk of COVID-19. N Engl J Med. 382:2431–2440. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2006923

Pudjiadi AH, Putri ND, Sjakti HA, Yanuarso PB, Gunardi H, Roeslani RD, Pasaribu AD, et al. (2021). Pediatric COVID-19: report from indonesian pediatric society data registry. Front. Pediatr. 9:716898. doi: 10.3389/fped-.2021.716898

Rahmi J, Romlah SN, Listiana I (2020). Kesehatan ibu dan anak di era pandemi corona virus disease (COVID-19). Jurnal Abdi Masyarakat. 1(1):62-69.

Saad M, Elsalamony R (2020). Measles vaccines may provide partial protection against COVID-19. Int J Cancer Biomed Res. 4:15-19. doi: 10.21608/JCBR.2020.26765.1024

Satuan Tugas Penanganan COVID-19 (2021). Peta sebaran September 2021.

Satuan Tugas Penanganan COVID-19 (2021). Peta sebaran Oktober 2021.

Shekerdemian LS, Mahmood NR, Wolfe KK, Riggs BJ, Ross CE, McKiernan CA, Heidemann, et al. (2020). Characteristics of children with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection admitted to US and Canadian pediatric intensive care units. JAMA Pediatr. 174(9): 868-873. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.1948

Tsankov BK, Allaire JM, Irvine MA, Lopez AA, Sauvé LJ, Vallance BA, Jacobson K (2020). Severe COVID-19 infection and pediatric comorbidities: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Infect Dis. 103:246-256. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2020.11.163

Wang D, Hu B, Hu C, Zhu F, Liu K, Zhang J, Wanget B, et al. (2020). Clinical characteristics of 138 hospitalized patients with 2019 novel coronavirus–infected pneumonia in Wuhan, Cina. Jama. 323(11): 1061-1069. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.1585

Wanti, Sambara J, Kristina, Hilaria M, Yuliani NN (2021). Buku panduan gerakan hidup sehat di masa pandemi COVID-19 (Guidebook for healthy living during the COVID-19 pandemic). Kupang: CV Yarsa.

Wong JJ, Abbas Q, Chuah SL, Malisie RF, Pon KM, Katsuta T, Dang H, Lee PC, et al. (2021). Comparative analysis of pediatric COVID-19 infection in Southeast Asia, south Asia, Japan, and Cina. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 105(2:413–420. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.210299




How to Cite

Aprilizia, D. S. A., Andarini, I., & Hafidh, Y. (2022). Predictors of Mortality of Pediatric Patients with COVID-19 in Dr Moewardi General Hospital Surakarta. Journal of Maternal and Child Health, 7(5), 600–608.