Meta Analysis: Effect's of Verbal and Physical Violences on Depression in Postpartum Women


  • Ebtaria Hartiwi Putri Master's Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret
  • Argyo Demartoto Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Universitas Sebelas Maret
  • Bhisma Murti Master's Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret



Background: Postpartum violence can manifest in many forms, including verbal, physical, and emotional abuse, as well as inappropriate clinical practice. This study aims to analyze previous primary studies in assessing the effect of verbal violence and physical violence on the incidence of depression in postpartum women.
Subjects and Method: This study is a systematic review and meta-analysis using the PRISMA flow chart and the PICO model. Population: postpartum women. Intervention: experiencing verbal violence and physical violence. Comparison: not experiencing verbal violence and physical violence. Outcome: depression. The online databases used are PubMed, SpringerLink, Scopus and ProQuest with the keywords “Verbal Abuse” Verbal Violence” OR “Intimate Partner Violence” AND “Physical Violence” OR “Physical Intimate Partner Violence” OR “Domestic Violence” OR “Physical Abuse” AND depression OR “Post Tramumatic Stress Disorder” AND “Postpartum” AND “Cross sectional” AND “aOR”. There were 12 cross-sectional studies published in 2016-2022 that met the inclusion criteria. The analysis was carried out using the Review Manager 5.3 application.
Results: Meta-analysis was carried out on 12 articles with a cross-sectional study design from Malaysia, South Africa, Japan, Brazil and Spain. The results showed that postpartum women who received verbal violence were more likely to experience depression 2.89 times than those who did not experience physical violence (aOR= 2.89; 95% CI = 1.96 to 4.25; p= 0.001) and postpartum women who received physically abused were 2.29 times more likely to experience depression than those who did not experience physical violence (aOR = 2.29; 95% CI = 1.37 to 3.83; p= 0.002).
Conclusion: Verbal violence and physical violence can affect the incidence of depression in postpartum women.

Keywords: postpartum women, verbal abuse, physical abuse, depression.

Correspondence: Ebtaria Hartiwi Putri, Master’s Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret. Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta 57126, Jawa Tengah, Indonesia. Email: Mobile: +6289666588614.


Ahmad NA, Silim UA, Rosman A, Mohamed M, Chan YY, Mohd KN, Yusof M, et al. (2018). Postnatal depression and intimate partner violence: A nationwide clinic- based cross-sectional study in Malaysia. BMJ Open 8(1); 1-9.

Bhusal BR, Bhandari N (2018). Identifying the factors associated with depressive symptoms among postpartum mothers in Kathma-ndu, Nepal. Int J Nurs Sci 5(2); 268– 274.

Blanck P, Perleth S, Heidenreich T, Kröger P, Ditzen B, Bents H, Mander J (2018) Effectsof mindfulness exercises as stand-alone intervention on symptoms of anxiety and depression: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Behav Res Ther (102): 25–35.

Bohren M, Hunter E, kaas MH, Souza J, Gulmezoglu A (2014). Facilitators and barriers to facility-based delivery in low and middle-income countries: A qualitative evidence synthesis. Reprod Health.

Center for Evidence Based Management (2014.) Critical appraisal checklist for cross-sectional study. https://cebma. org/wp-content/uploads/Critical Appraisal Questions-for-a-Cross-Sectional-Study-July-2014-1. Diakses March 2023.

Cochrane (2014). Review manager (rev-Man) is Cochrane’s bespoke software for writing Cochrane Reviews. https:// revman

Deeks JJ, Hinggins JP, Altman DG (2021). Analysing data and undertaking meta-analysis. CochraneTraining. ent/chapter-10. Diakses March 2023.

Fitriana Y, Pratiwi K, Vita S (2015). Faktor-faktor yang berhubungan dengan perilaku orangtua dalam melakukan kekerasan verbal terhadap anak usia pra-sekolah (Factors related to parental behavior in verbally abusing pre-school children). Jurnal Psikologi Undip. 14 8:1–93.

Govender D, Naidoo S, Taylor M (2020). Antenatal and postpartum depression: preval-ence and associated risk factors among Adolescents’ in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Depress Res Treat. 9(11): 1-12. /10.1155/-2020/5364521

Islam MJ, Broidy L, Baird K, Mazerolle P (2017). Intimate partner violence aro-und the time of pregnancy and post-partum depression: The experience of women of Bangladesh. PLoS One. 12(5):1-24. journal.pone.0176211.

Lubis NL (2016) Depresi tinjauan psikologis (Psychological review depression). Jakarta: Kencana.

Mahenge B, Stöckl H, Mizinduko M, Maza-lale J, Jahn A (2018). Adverse child-hood experiences and intimate partner violence during pregnancy and their association to postpartum depression. J Affect Disord. 229:159–163. https-://

Martinez VS, Hernández MA, Rodríg-uez AJ, Delgado RM, Martínez GJM (2022). Relationship between perceived obstetric violence and the risk of postpartum depression: An observational study. Midwifery. 108. 10.1016/j.mi dw.2022.103297.

Martínez VS, Rodríguez AJ, Hernánde MA, Delgado RM, Martínez G, Juan M (2021). Long-term high risk of post-partum post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and associated factors. J Clin Med.10: 1–12. 10.3-90/jcm-100.

Martinez VS, Rodriquez AJ, Mrtinez GJM (2021). Factors associated with post-partum post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following. J Pers Med. 11 (5): 1-11. 10.3390/jpm1105 0338

Ostman M, Lukasse M, Temmerman M, Steingrimsdottir T (2016). Emotional, Physical, and sexual abuse and the association with symptoms of depression and post-traumatic stress in a multi-ethnic pregnant po-pulation in southern Sweden. Sex Reprod Health. 9(5):1-7. http:/ 10.1016/j.srhc.2016.04.003 .




How to Cite

Putri, E. H., Demartoto, A., & Murti, B. (2023). Meta Analysis: Effect’s of Verbal and Physical Violences on Depression in Postpartum Women. Journal of Maternal and Child Health, 8(5), 555–565.