The Effect of Active Smoking of Pregnant Women on Premature Birth: A Meta Analysis


  • Imam Setya Arifian Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret
  • Vitri Widyaningsih Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sebelas Maret
  • Hanung Prasetya Study Program in Acupuncture, Health Polytechnics, Ministry of Health Surakarta


Background: Smoking is a well-known major risk factor for premature death from cancer, cardiovascular disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. When a pregnant woman smokes, she puts herself and her baby at risk. This is because the developing fetus / baby in the mother's womb is in contact with the mother's bloodstream. Any chemical that the mother inhales or swallows can affect the fetus. This study aims to analyze the magnitude of the effect of active smoking on pregnant women with preterm labor by means of a meta-analysis study.

Subjects and Method: This was a systematic review and meta-analysis carried out by follow


Adibelli D, Kirca N (2020). The relationship between gestational active and passive smoking and early postpartum complications. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 33(14): 2473-2479. https://doi:10.1080/14767058.2020.1763294.

Andriani H, Kuo HW (2014). Adverse effects of parental smoking during pregnancy in urban and rural areas. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 14(1): 1

Anulus A, Murti B, Prasetya H (2019). Risk Factors of HIV among Male Military Personnels: A Meta Analysis. J Health Promot and Behav. 4(3): 178

Arcavi L, Benowitz NL (2004). Cigarette smoking and infection. Int Arch Intern Med. 164(20): 2206

Arfailasufandi R, Mudigdo A, Sudiyanto A (2019). The effect of obesity, oral contraceptive and passive smoking on the risk of cervical cancer. J Epidemiol Public Health. 4(3): 189

Azagba S, Manzione L, Shan L, King J (2020). Trends in smoking during pregnancy by socioeconomic characteristics in the United States, 2010-2017. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 20(1): 52. https://doi:10.118/s12884-020-2748-y

Delmas C (2005). Smoking and pregnancy. Rev l

Giemza M (2004). The Tobacco Box. Journal of the English Association. 53(207): 243

Guo L, Chen Y, Mi B, Dang S, Zao D, Liu R, Wang H, Yan H (2019). Ambient air pollution and adverse birth outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 20(3): 238-252.

Ion RC, Wills AK, Phil D (2016). Environmental tobacco smoke exposure in pregnancy is associated with earlier delivery and reduced birth weight. Reprod Sci. 22(12): 1603-1611. https://doi:10.1177/1933719115612135.

Jaddoe VWV, Bakker R, Hofman A, Mac-kenbach JP, Moll HA, Steegers EAP, Witteman JCM (2007). Moderate alcohol consumption during pregnancy and the risk of low birth weight and preterm birth. the generation R study. Ann Epidemiol. 17(10): 834

Jaddoe VWV, Troe EJWM, Hofman A, Mackenbach JP, Moll HA, Steegers EAP, Witteman JCM (2008). Active and passive maternal smoking during pregnancy and the risks of low birthweight and preterm birth: the Generation R Study. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol.22(2): 162

Ju A, Heyman MB, Garber AK, Wojcicki JM (2018). Maternal obesity and risk of preterm birth and low birthweight in Hawaii PRAMS, 2000

Ko T, Tsai LY, Chu LC, Yeh SJ, Leung C, Chen CY, Chou HC, et al. (2013). Parental smoking during pregnancy and its association with low birth weight, small for gestational age, and preterm birth offspring: A birth cohort study. Pediatr Neonatol. 55(1): 20

Kondracki AJ, Hofferth SL (2019). A gestational vulnerability window for smoking exposure and the increased risk of preterm birth: how timing and intensity of maternal smoking matter. Reprod Health. 16(43): 1


Listiani FRM, Salimo H, Murti B (2018). Path analysis on the biological and social economic determinants of neonatal death in Bantul District, Yogyakarta. J Matern Child Health. 03(02): 91

Miyake Y, Tanaka K, Arakawa M (2013). Active and passive maternal smoking during pregnancy and birth outcomes: the Kyushu Okinawa maternal and child health study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 13(1): 157.

Murti B (2018). Prinsip dan Metode Riset Epidemiologi. 5th edn. Surakarta: Universitas Sebelas Maret.

Ratnasiri AWG, Parry SS, Arief VN, DeLacy IH, Lakshminrusimha S, Halliday LA, DiLibero RJ, Basford KE (2018). Temporal trends, patterns, and pre-dictors of preterm birth in California from 2007 to 2016, based on the obstetric estimate of gestational age. Matern Health Neonatol Perinatol. 4(1): 25.

Robl JM (2012). The impact of maternal smoking in kentucky and effect of the giving infants and families tobaccofree starts pilot project on smoking cessation and birth outcomes. University of Kentucky.

Shah NR, Bracken MB (2000). A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies on the association between maternal cigarette smoking and preterm delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 182(2): 465

Sudaryanto, Rahardjo SS, Indarto D (2019). Risk factors of hypertension among women in Sragen, Central Java. J epidemiol public health. 4(2): 127-137.

Susanti I, Salimo H, Dewi YLR (2020). Effects of maternal socioeconomic, psychological, nutritional factor, and ambient smoke exposure, on the risk of low birth weight: A multilevel evidence from Gunungkidul, Yogyakarta. 05(04): 446

Suzuki K, Tanaka T, Kondo N, Minai J, Sato M, Yamagata Z (2008). Is maternal smoking during early pregnancy a risk factor for all low birth weight infants?. J Epidemiol. 18(3): 89

UNICEF (2017). Levels and Trends in Child Mortality: Report 2017. United Nati-ons Inter-Group for Child Mortality Estimation.

Wagijo M, Sheikh A, Duijts L, Been JV (2017). Reducing tobacco smoking and smoke exposure to prevent pre-term birth and its complications. Paediatr Respir Rev. 22(1): 3

WHO (2018). Heart disease and stroke are the commonest ways by which tobacco kills people. WHO. 1(1): 1

WHO (2019). 2019 Health SDG Profile: Indonesia. 2




How to Cite

Arifian, I. S., Widyaningsih, V., & Prasetya, H. (2021). The Effect of Active Smoking of Pregnant Women on Premature Birth: A Meta Analysis. Journal of Maternal and Child Health, 6(1), 95–107. Retrieved from