Determinants of Stunting and Child Development in Jombang District
Background: Stunting is a very short body state in children that goes beyond the 2 SD deficit below the child population height. Worldwide stunting affects about 162 million children under five. Indonesia is included in 17 countries that have three nutritional problems in children under five: stunting, wasting, and overweight. This study aimed to investigate the determinants of stunting and child development in children under five.
Subjects and Method: This was a retrospective cohort study conducted at Mayangan and Jarak Kulon Community Health Centers, Jombang, East Java, in Januari 2018. A total sample of 58 children were selected for this study by fixed exposure sampling. The dependent variables were stunting and child development. The independent variables were birth-length, maternal age, maternal height, maternal education, and family income. The data were collected by questionnaire. Data on birth length was taken from maternal and child record at community health center. The data were analyzed by path analysis model.
Results: The likelihood of good child development increased with maternal education (b= 1.08; 95% CI= 0.41 to 1.75; p= 0.001) and decreased with stunting (b= -0.78; 95% CI= -1.46 to -0.10; p=0.025). The risk of stunting decreased with birth-length (b= -0.90; 95% CI= -1.60 to -0.21; p=0.011) and maternal height (b=-0.92; 95% CI= -1.69 to -0.16; p=0.018). The risk of stunting increased with maternal age <20 y.0. or ?35 y.o. at pregnancy (b= 0.73; 95% CI= -0.03 to 1.46; p=0.051). The likelihood of maternal age <20 y.0. or ?35 y.o. at pregnancy decreased with higher education (b=-0.75; 95% CI= -1.44 to -0.06; p=0.033). Birth-length
Addo OY, Aryeh DS, Caroline HF, Denise PG, Aravinda MG, Bernardo LH, et al. (2013). Maternal Height and Child Growth Patterns. The Journals of Pediatric: J Pediatr. 163: 549-54.
Aguayo VM, Nina B, Kajali P (2015). Determinants of Child Stunting in the Royal Kingdom of Bhutan: an in Depth Analysis of Nationally Representative Data. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd Maternal and Child Nutrition: 333
Armstrong MEG, MI Lambert, EV Lambert (2011). Secular Trends in the Prevalence of Stunting, Overweight and Obesity among South African Children (1994
Aryastami NK, Anuraj S, Nunik K, Besral, Abas BJ, Endang A (2017). Low Birth Weight was the most Dominant Predictor Associated with Stunting among Children aged 12
Atsu BK, Chris G, Amos KL (2017). Determinants of Overweight With Concurrent Stunting Among Ghanaian Children. BMC Pedriatic, 17: 177.
Barker JPD, Clive O, Tom JF, Kent LT, Eero K, Johan GE (2013). Foetal and Childhood Growth And Asthma In Adult Life. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 102: 732
Bove I, Teresa M, Cristina C, Ricardo U, MN (2012). Stunting, Overweight and Child Development Impairment go Hand in hand as Key Problems of Early Infancy: Uruguayan Case. Early Human Development 88: 747
Casale DC, Desmond, Richter L (2014). The Association Between Stunting And Psychosocial Development Among Preschool Children: A Study Using The South African Birth To Twenty Cohort Data. Child: Care, Health and Development. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Child: care, health and development, 40(6): 900
Conant LL, Einat L, Anjali D, Jeffrey R. Binder (2017). The Relationship Between Maternal Education And The Neural Substrates Of Phoneme Perception In Children: Interactions Between Socioeconomic Status And Proficiency Level. Brain & Language. ElsevierInc. 171: 14
Darteh EKM, Evelyn A, Akwasi KK (2014). Correlates of Stunting Among Children in Ghana. BMC Public Heath: 14: 504.
Decker ED, Craemer MD, Bourdeaudhuji ID, Wijndaele K, Duvinage K, Koletzko B, Grammatikaki E, Lotova V, Usheva N, et al (2012). Influecing Factors of Screen Time in Preschool Children: An Exploratin of Parents Perception Through Focus Groups in Six European Countries. Obesity Reviews, 13(1): 75
Darteh EKM, Evelyn A, Akwasi KK (2014). Correlates of Stunting Among Children in Ghana. BMC Public Heath. 14: 504
Delprato M, Kwame A (2017). The Effect of Early Marriage Timing onWomen
Desmond C, Casale D (2017). Catchup Growth in Stunted Children: Definitions and Predictors. PLoS ONE 12(12): e0189135
Murti B (2007). Sejarah Epidemiologi.
Fernalda LCH, Patricia K, Melissa H, and Paul JG (2012). Socioeconomic Gradients In Child Development In Very Young Children: Evidence from India, Indonesia, Peru, and Senegal. PNAS, 109(2): 17273
Fikadu T, Sahilu A, Lamessa D (2014). Factors Associated With Stunting Among Children Of Age 24 To 59 Months In Meskan District, Gurage Zone, South Ethiopia: A Case Control Study. BMC Public Health, 14: 800.
Haile D, Muluken A, Tegegn M, Rochelle R (2016). Exploring spatial Variations And Factors Associated With Childhood Stunting In Ethiopia: Spatial And Multilevel Analysis. BMC Pediatrics: 1
Hizni A, Madarina J, Gamayanti IL (2010). Status stunted dan Hubungannya dengan Perkembangan Anak Balita di Wilayah Pesisir Pantai Utara Kecamatan Lemahwungkuk Kota Cirebon. Jurnal Gizi Klinik Indonesia. 6(3): 131-137.
Islam MM, Kazi IS, Mustafa M, Shamsir A, Dinesh M, Rashidul H, Tahmeed A (2018). Risk Factors of Stunting Among Children Living in an Urban Slum of Bangladesh: Findings of A Prospective Cohort Study. BMC Public Health. 18: 197.
Kementrian Kesehatan RI (2015). Pendek (Stunting) di Indonesia, Masalah dan Solusinya. Jakarta: Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan (2015) pendek (stunting) di Indonesia.
Kementrian Kesehatan RI (2016). Pemantauan Status Gizi Dan Indikator Kinerja Gizi. Jakarta.
_____ (2016). Situasi Balita Pendek.Pusat Data dan Informasi Kementrian Kesehatan RI. Jakarta.
_____ (2017). Pemantauan Status Gizi (PSG) Dan Penjelasannya. Jakarta.
Kim R, Mej
Morrison AP, Paul F, Suzanne LKS, Max B, David, Fawler, Andrew IG, Peter BJ, et al. (2012). Early detection and intervention evaluation for people at risk of psychosis: multisite randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 344. doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.e2233.
Nurbaeti TS (2016). Stunting Degree Relationship with Fine Motor Development of Children Aged 12-24 Months. Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat. 1(4).
Onis MD, Francesco B (2016). Childhood Stunting: a Global Perspective.World Health Organization; licensed by JohnWiley & Sons Ltd. Maternal & Child Nutrition, 12 (1): 12
Perkins JM, Kim R, Krishna A, McGovern M, Aguayo VM, Subramanian SV (2017). Understanding the Association Between Stunting And Child Development in Low and Middle Income Countries: Next Steps For Research and Intervention. Social Science & Medicine.
Rahman MS, Howlader T, Masud MS, Rahman ML (2016). Association of Low Birth Weight with Malnutrition in Children Under Five Years in Bangladesh: Do Mother
Ramos CV, Dumith SC, C
Schady N (2011). Parents Education, Mothers Vocabulary and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood: Longitudinal Evidence from Ecuador. American Journal of Public Health: 101(12): 2299
Singh A, Upadhyay AK, Kumar K (2016). Birth Size, Stunting and Recovery from Stunting in Andhra Pradesh, India: Evidence from the Young Lives Study.Maternal and Child Health Journal. Springer US. doi: 10.1007/s1099501621328.
UNICEF (2012). Gizi Ibu dan Anak. UNICEF Indonesia.
Win KM, Marc VDP, Nitaya V, Kwanjai A (2013). Early Pregnancy and Maternal Malnutrition as Precursors of Stunting in Children under Two Years of Age among Bhutanese Refugees, in Nepal Maternal. Thammasat International Journal of Science and Technology, 18(1).