Meta-Analysis the Effect of Oral and Injection Contraceptives on Breast Cancer

Dilma’aarij Dilma’aarij, Setyo Sri Rahardjo, Eti Poncorini Pamungkasari


Background: Oral contraceptives and injec­tions are the main risk factors for breast cancer. The content of the hormones estrogen and progesterone in oral contraceptives and proges­tin in injection contraceptives can affect uncontrolled growth of breast tissue, leading to breast cancer. This study aims to analyze the magnitude of the effect of oral contraceptives and injection on the incidence of breast cancer by means of a meta-analysis study.

Subjects and Method: This was a systematic review and meta-analysis conducted with PRISMA flow diagrams. Search for articles through journal databases includes: PubMed, Science Direct, and Google Scholar by selecting articles published in 2010-2020. The keywords used were "Women Aged 15-80 Years" AND "Contraceptive Pills" OR "Birth control injec­ti­ons" AND "Breast Cancer". The inclusion crite­ria were full text articles with observational study design, articles in English, and multi­variate analysis used with adjusted odds ratios. Articles that meet the requirements are ana­lyzed using the Revman 5.3 application.

Results: A meta-analysis of 15 observational studies showed that oral contraceptives had a 1.30 times risk of developing breast cancer compared with women using non-hormonal contraceptives (aOR= 1.30; 95% CI= 1.13 to 1.50; p= 0.0002). A meta-analysis of 6 obser­vational studies showed injectable contracep­tives had a 1.37 times risk of developing breast cancer compared to using non-hormonal contraceptives (aOR= 1.37; 95% CI= 1.09 to 1.71; p= 0.006).

Conclusion: Oral hormonal contraceptives and injections have a weak effect on the inci­dence of breast cancer.

Keywords: injection contraception, oral contraception, breast cancer, meta-analysis

Correspondence: Dilma’aarij Riski Agustia. Masters Program in Public Health. Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl.Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta 57126, Jawa Tengah, Indonesia. Email: Mobile: 082230100871.

Journal of Maternal and Child Health (2021), 06(02): 238-249

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